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France has. been to give the natives as large a are, in addition, four criminal courts. Natives are

share in the government as they are capable of not allowed to sit as judges.

bearing. During the World War France received Education,— There are about 867 schools with

from ddo-China not only an important contingent 1325 teachers and 51,452 pupils. Secondary educa-

of troops, but large supplies of money, boats, pro- tion is given at the College Cbasseloup-Loubat of

visions, and raw materials. After the war the Saigon, at College of GiaDinh, and at the College

native judicial code was reorganized, and new legis- of Mytho. In 1918 was created the Scientific In-

lation introduced. A recrudescence of the revolu- stitute at Saigon, to which was united the Botanical

tionary movement took place in Annam in 1917, Institute, the agricultural stations at Oirai, and the

but in general the natives have accepted with arboretum at Tranybuum,

apparent placidity the rule of the French. Economics and Agriculture^ — ^The total area of

Economics and Agriculture, — ^The tenure of the Cochin China is 5,011,277 hectares (1 hectare=2.47

land is either in the hands of the natives who pay acres), of which 1,975,725 hectares are cultivated

a tax to the State as rent, or in the hands of ^he and 3,488,611 hectares are uncultivated (1,748,694

French colonists who have received concessions hectares being forest). About 1,665,000 hectares

amounting to over one million acres. The con- are devoted to the culture of rice. In 1920 the

cessionaries lease the land to the natives, and farm animals comprised 12,383 horses, 435,489 buf-

provide- them with the necessary materials for faloes, 277,473 pigs, 2553 sheep and goats. There

agriculture, receiving in return a percentage of the are 10 rice mills at Saigon and Cholon, turning

products; or if they directly exploit the lands them- out from 450 to 900 tons a dav, also 2 sawmills, 2

selves, they pay a certain percentage of profit to soap factories, and a varnish factory. Cochin-

the State and reward the natives wim a proportion China has a Department of Agriculture and a

of the produce. Mining concessions are granted by Chamber of Commerce. During 1919, 589 steamers

the government (218 in 1918). foreigners being of 895,592 tons entered the port of Saigon, 114 of

forbidden to own mines. Foreign capital does not which were British. The total exports in 1919 were

directly play a conspicuous part in the develop- valued at 980,777,780 francs; the imports, 84,202,744

ment of Indo-China. The cmef minerals are coal francs. In the same year the local Budget balanced

(636 tons in 1918), lignite, antimony, tin (604 tons at 9,086,358 piastres. For Catholic statistics see

in 1918), wolfram and zinc (28,000 tons in 1918). Cochin China, Western, Vicariate Apostolic

The chief error in the past has been too exclusive of.

a concentration on the cultivation of rice to the Annam, a kingdom under French protectorate,

neglect of the many other possibilities of the coun- has an area of 52,100 square miles. In 1919 the

try. It is the chief export, forming about 70 per population was 5,592,0(X), including 2117 Europeans

cent of the total (1,475,775 tons in 1918). In 1918 (exclusive of military forces). The population is

2714 vessels of 2,241,746 tons entered, and 2568 mainly Annamite. The ports of Tourane, Qui-

vessels of 2,196,064 tons cleared. ()f those entered Nhon, and Xuan Day are open to European com-

332 were French, 281 English, and 258 Japanese, merce, and the customs revenue conceded to France.

The oldest railroad is that from Saigon to Mytho; French troops occupy part of the cidatel (Manga-

at the end of 1918 the total length of line, two- Ca) of Hu6, the capital (population 60,611). Binh-

thirds Government owned, was 1300 miles. Dinh, the largest town, has 74,400 inhabitants.

Cochin-China, a direct colony of France, has an Education, — At the end of 1920 the official schools area of about 20,0()0 square miles, and a population of Annam were reorganized and placed imder the (1919) of 3,452,218, of whom 6301 were Europeans, direct control of the French Protectorate. There In 1919 Saigon, the capital, had a population of were 685 village schools with 14,438 pupils, 98 04,496, of whom 4161 were Europeans, exclusive of elementaiy schools with 5985 pupils, 16 secondary 2200 troops. Cholon, the largest city, had 190,085, schools with 5058 pupils, 1 higher secondary school of whom 97,211 were Chinese. As a French colony at Hu6 with 562 pupils, 1 higher secondary school Cochin-China is represented in France by a deputy for native girls with 289 pupils, 1 professional elected by the French citizens. It is directly school with 125 pupils, and 1 school of law and administered by a governor, assisted by a privy administration with 55 pupils. Higher education council. The Colonial Council of sixteen members, is given at the colle^^e of Quoc-Hoc at Hu6. of whom six are Annamites and the rest French, Economics and Agriculture, — ^The Phanrang River decides the law of the colony and votes on the has been utilized to irrigate 100,000 acres, and budget. The head of each province is assisted by similar works are bein^ carried on in Central a provincial coimcil of natives, and votes on the Annam. Cattle raising is an important industry, budget of the province. The cantons are adminis- there being in Annam, in 1919, 681, OCX) head of tered by the chiefs, and are divided into communes, cattle. In the same year the exports, which con- each directed by a council of twelve notables. The sisted chiefly of rice, cotton, silk, tea, and pepper, towns of Saigon and Cholon form a separate com- were valued at 51,556,788 francs; the imports at munity. In Saigon the mayor, who is elected, 9,243,059 francs. In 1919, 117 ships, totaling 97,942 heads a municipal coimcil, composed of twelve tons, cleared the port of Tourane. French residents and four natives. In Cholon he Government. — ^The King of Annam, who is is nominated by the governor-general, and his an absolute sovereign, is assisted by a Conseil Commission Murucipale is composed of three «ecrei (comof), composed of seven ministers, each of French notables, chosen for three years by the whom is assisted by a council of three mandarins.

governor from a list of ten, selected by the C^ham- A conseil de censure, nominated by the king, con-

er of Commerce; four Annamites (elected) and trols the work of the functionaries. The kingdom

three Chinese, chosen by the governor from a is divided into provinces, circumscriptions, cantons,

list presented to him by the Chinese congregation, and communes. The provinces are controlled by

Justice is administered in French courts by French the tong-doc, assisted by the quango (chief of

justices. There are five magistrates, nine Courts the administrative service), the anr^at (chief of the

of First Instance at different centers, and a branch judiciary service), the (foc-^oo( inspector of schools),

of the Court of Appeal for Indo-China, sitting at and the lanh^inh (military commander). The cir-

Saigon. The judges of the Courts of First Instance cumscriptions are directed by the quan^huyen, or

also exercise the functions of magistrates. There quan-fu, who are at once administrators and judges.