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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 17.djvu/420

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Infamy by law can be removed only by permission hospitals for 35, gave food supplies to 3320. dis-

of the Holy See, but infamy by act ceases when tributed 3363 new garments, 4865 used garments, 

m the opmion of the ordinary the sinner has by 179 Christmas red stockings, and gave 85 Christmas his continued good Me regamed the esteem of pru- dinners, dent serious-minded persons.

Infamy by law constitutes an irregularity ex Innsbruck, University of (cf C E VIII 24b)

defectw'ii disqualifies entirely for benefices, pen- The war and its aftermath have produced a great sions, offices, digmties, for ecclesiastical legal acts, many problems in the solution of which the Uni- for the exercise of ecclesiastical nghts, for any versity of Innsbruck was involved. The award of ministry in sacred functions, or for sponsorship, a substantial portion of the Province of Austrian Infamy by act impedes one temporarily from re- Tyrol to Italy under the Treaty of St. Germain ceiymg holy yrders, or benefices, offices or dimities, when under the pressure of the firet great economic and from the exercise of sacred mimstry or of eccle- crisis it was proposed, in order to create credits in siastical legal acts. Furthermore, after a sentence foreign countries, to sell the national works of art pronouncing infamy the culprit cannot vote at the Academic Senate of the university entered elections, or exercise the right of patronage, or vigorous protest, laying stress upon the fact that vahdiy act as sponsor. Finally, no one who is such means should be adopted only after all the tainted with infamy may testify in ecclesiastical resources of the State had been directed toward suits, and if he is notoriously infamous he must not forcing the profiteers and their accomplices and even be allowed to receive Holy Communion. conscienceless manufacturers to disgorge that which ^ K any one fears that his testimony will entad was really due to the Government. The university infamy on himself or on his kmdred m the direct hne opposed the establishment of the compulsory asso- or in the first degree collateral, he is exempted ex- ciation of university professors, which was directed pressly by law from confessing the truth to a judge by an order of the Ministry of Education, on the who questions him m an ecclesiastical court. If by ground that such action on the part of the Govem- observmg a vindicatory penalty or censure iot<» ment constituted an undermining of the basic senteriKB a guilty person would betray himself and autonomy granted by law to the universities The incur infamy and cause scandal, m an urgent case Academic Senate also opposed an increase in the any confessor can m the forum of confession tuition fees, as well as re-introduction of the prac suspend the obligation of observing the penalty, tice of payments by students direct to the oro- on condition that he imposes on the culprit the fessors as an additional fee for attendance upon obhgation of having recourse at least within a the courses riven by such professors. An attack month by letter and by his confessor, if po«ible was also made upon the time-honored practice of without grave inconvenience, his name being con- using Latin formulas in the conferring of Academic cealed, to the sacred pemtentiary or to a bishop Degrees. While the university recognized that the possessing the requisite faculties and of obeying language of such promotion formula were anti- his commands; if m any extraordinary case such quated, and in many instances did violence to the recourse is impossible the confessor, except m case scientific feelings of the philologists, nevertheless of the ceiwure for solicitation, can grant the dis- because of the fact that the question is by no means pensation, but he must impose a fitting penance and of basic importance, and because the Academic satisfaction with the penalty of again incurring Senate in these times of radical change felt it de- infamy if the penance or satisfaction is unduly de- sirable to adhere to a conservative course, the ^^y^' movement to abolish such formul® and standards

» - ^ , « « • , , ^^^ ^^^ *^U8 ^ar been successful.

XT /?!i* 1 % k ?^®'^K ^^A ™.--Pounded at For the first time in decades an academic celebra- Neufchatel (Sarthe), 1835, and transferred to Le tion, which hitherto had been impossible because Mans. 1888, the Congregation of the Infant Jesus of the political and religious cleavage in the student IS approved for teaching and niming non-clois- body, was held on 4 December, 1919, to celebrate tered. They came to America, 21 October, 1905. the return of the students who had participated and are incorporated under the title Nursing Sis- in the war. The university and the Ministnr of ters of the Sick Poor, with mother-house in Brook- Education vied with one another in order to find lyn. At present the community numbers 63, and in ways and means to facilitate the education and Uie past fifteen yeara has served over 4000 patients, instruction of these returning soldiers. As a con- The novitiate has been transferred to St. Joseph's sequence credit was given to such students for Villa, Hempstead, L. I., where the Sisters are service in the army as far as possible, an extra trained m the hospital and prepared for their semester was added and the reqmrements of exami- work. A small branch house was recently opened nations were reduced as far as it was compatible in Long Island City and ministers to the poor of with the feeling of responsibility of the academic that section. The works of the congregation are teacher. The lightening of the financial burdens the education of children m orphanages, industrial of the students was accomplished through the eetab- pchools, and homes for working girls; the conducting lishment of a Mensa Academica, where meals are of clinics, hospitals, homes for the aged; and the served to needy students, either without charge or nursing of the sick m their homes. In America the for a nominal consideration. Support was given to work of the Sisters is the nursing of the sick poor this undertaking through large donations on the m their homes. The Sisters form a family without part of the professors, through suitable contribu- distinction, wear the same religious habit, and tions, and principally by the National Auxiliary observe the same disciphne, regardless of their Council of Tyrol, as well as a large gift from the ongin or education. For the continuance and ex- Convention of German Cities through the instru- tension of their work they depend solely on the mentality of the Municipal Councils and the Gov- charity of others, for they accept no remuneration emment of Tyrol. However, these means were not whatever for their services. During the year 1921 sufficient to relieve the great needs of the students the Sistera attended 392 new cas^, spent 1592 whole and help from abroad was necessary. As the result days, 1044 half days, and 72 nights on cases, made of a gift from Holland it was possible to provide 1700 visits to cases new or still pending, attended the students a daily breakfast prepared by their 41 at the hour of death, procured admission to female fellow students. Contributions from Sweden