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protection of the Jinga or deceased emperors and Mill Hill missionaries, 40 regular clergy (Augun- heroes of the tutekiy gods of the nation. In May, tinians and Recollects), 2 lay brothers, 75 Sisters, 1918, at the general reimion of Shintoist dignitaries, 1 seminary, and 65 seminarians. The educational the study of Shintoism was made obligatory in institutions include 1 college for men in connection secondary and higher education as it already was with the seminary, which is in charge of the in the primary schools. Religion thus became a Lazarists with several himdred students, 1 college matter of patriotism, and in its name pressure for men under the Augustinians, also with several was brought to bear on the pupils of schools which hundred students, 5 academies for yoimg ladies did not take part in the official festivals of Japan, with 60 teachers and 1000 students, 35 elementary The Christians refused to do so in virtue of their schools with 176 teachers and 3000 pupils. There faith, which forbids participation in superstitious is 1 asylum with 125 girls and 1 hospital; the ceremoniee^ and the pagans, in the name of the Knights of Columbus are organized and a Catholic religious liberty guaranteed by the constitution, periodical, Cabuhisang Banua," is published. Newspapers and periodicals took the stand that

one could be at the same time a Christian and Jassy, Diocese of (Jasbiensxb; cf. C. E., a loyal citizen of Japan. A Japanese Catholic, Cap- VIII-325b), in Rumania. In 1921 by apostolic de- tain Yamagata, was sent to Rome by the Govern- cree the province of Bessarabia in Moldavia waa ment to explain the full import of Juiga worship, separated from the diocese of Tiraspol and incor- and a delegate apostolic, Mgr. Petrelli, was sent to porated in the diocese of Jassy. After the death Japan to study this important question. The re- (1915) of the former Bishop Joseph Camilli the suits of both missions are not yet available, but episcopal seat remained vacant until 15 August, the pressure formerly exercised on non-Shintoists 1920, when Alexander Th. Cisar was consecrated has been noticeably weakened. Another division Bishop of Jassy in the Cathedral at Bucarest by exists amonp;st the intellectuals, for some of whom Archbishop Netzhammer, O.S.B. Among the recent Shintoism is in decadence. Buddhism stagnant, events of importance within the diocese are: the Chiistianity without strength, and who seek in reopening of the theological seminary at Jassy; the eclecticism to rebuild a spiritual edifice in Japan, publication of a new diocesan catechism, prayer This thinking element has no antagonism towards book, and of the periodical "Catholic Sentinel"; the Church, and does not refuse to at least examine the institution of tne Sodality for the Protection her doctrines. The same conditions prevail in of Young Girls, and of the Association of Christian Corea (Chosen), where the strict enforcement of Mothers. Of special note are the following clergy the school laws raises obstacles to Catholicism recently deceased: Daniel Pietrobono (d. 1915), tor hitherto unknown. The principal marks of the forty years stationed in Galatz, provincial of the present religious situation then are on the one hand Conventuals in Moldavia, Vicar General of Jas^, a greater esteem for the Church and on the other built the parish house and wholly restored the a war against her in the name of patriotism and church, afforded every assistance to the Sisters of of badly defined ideas of religion. Notre Dame of Sion in founding a flourishing com-

The Apostolic Delegation of Japan with Corea, munity in Galatz. Nicholas Joseph Camflli (d. Fomosa, the Caroline, Mariana, Marshall Islands 1915), Bishop of Jassy for twenty-five years, founded was erected 26 November, 1919. Mgr. Pumasoni the theological seminary and the achola cantorum, Biondi, titular Archbishop of Dioclea, formerly edited both a large and small diocesan catechism Apostolic delegate to the Indies, was the first head and the diocesan Acts; Joseph Malinovski (d. of the Japanese delegation. He was recalled to 1917), Vicar General and Apostolic Administrator Rome in 1921 and named secretary of the Propa- of Jassy, edited many books and in particular a

fanda 16 June, counsultor of the Holy Office 25 practical prayer book and a hymn book: Gratiano une, and a month later consultor of Extraordinary Qarpati (d. 1919), a zealous miBsionary and founder Ecclesiastical Affairs. He was succeeded m Japaj of the parochial library, of the periodical Viata," by Mgr. Giardmi, Bamabite, b. m Milan, 1877, and of the Society of Honorable Youth, entered the novitiate m 1893, elevated to the epis- During the war the Catholic soldiery merited the copate in 1915, as titular Archbishop of Edeasa. special commendation of their superiors and of

King Ferdinand I. Ulderico Cipolloni, O.M.C., Jaro, Diodssv of (Jarbnsib; cf. C. E., who was at that time Apostolic Administrator of VIII-323d), in the Philippine Islands, is suffragan the diocese, besides giving every assistance to the to the Archdiocese *of Manila. Until 1910 it in- priests in the army, and providing for the care of eluded the present diocese of Zamboanga^ which the prisonersL and the sick and wounded, built a was erected on 10 April of that year. The islands refuge for tne orphaned and foimded two such of Panay and Negros, together with the Romblon asylums, and erected a monument to the dead group, are comprised within the limits of the Dio- Catholic soldiers.

cese of Jaro, and there are scattered throughout The diocese numbers 100,000 Catholics in Mol- some Aglii)ayan Schismatics, and on the mountains davia and Bessarabia, of whom 85 per cent are the semi-civilized Negritos. The Catholic popula- Hungarians, 10 per cent Poles, 4 per cent Germans tion is about 1,000,000. The first American oishop, or Austrians, and 1 per cent Italians. There are Rt. Rev. Frederick Zadok Hooker, d. 18 September, 24 secular and 26 regular priests; 5 deaneries and 1907, and was succeeded in 1908 by the present 33 parishes with 217 affiliated stations, and 148 Csuxiinal Dougherty of Pbdladelphia, who was bishop churches and 10 chapels; 4 convents for men and I of this see until his transfer to the Diocefee of 4 for women with 136 Sisters of Notre Dame of Buffalo in 1915, when he was succeeded by Bishop Sion and 40 Franciscan Nuns; 1 theological semi- Foley, d. 12 August, 1919. The present incumbent, nary at Jassy and 2 preparatory seminaries at Rt. Rev. James P. McClosky, b. in Philadelphia, Jassy and Halaucesti witn 49 students; several day 1870, ordained 1898, prelate of the Holy See 1913, schools for boys and girls* 2 boarding schools for appointed Bishop of Zamboango, consecrated 1 girls at Jassy and Galatz directed by the Sisters of May, 1917, was transferred to Jaro, 8 March, 1920. Notre Dame of Sion with 1086 students; 4 ele- By present (1921) statistics there are 115 parishes, mentary schools with 794 pupils; 2 orphan asylums 12 missions, 150 churches, 1 monastery for men, with 35 boys and 56 girls. The Government does 95 secular clersy. 70 of whom are native, and 25 not contribute to the support of the Catholic inĀ«