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KsLiGtON. — The new Constitution of Latvia pro- majority in Quebec East, he was again and again

vides for religious freedom, there being no State elected, namely, in 1878, 1882, 1887, 1891, 1896,

Church. In Riga, Windau, and southeast of Livonia and 1900. In 1904 he went to the House of Com-

there are about 200,000 Greek Orthodox Letts. mons and was chosen again in 1908, 1911, and

Education.— Before the war there were 98 sec- 1917. He had been leader of the Opposition in ondary schools in Latvia with 22,000 pupils, or 1 the House ever since 1887, and on the defeat of the secondary school for every 26,000 inhabitants. The Tupper Ministry in 1896 was called by Lord Aber- percentage of illiterates, including children under deen to form a Ministry and become President the age of ten, is 21.5. In 1919 the Riga Poly-* of the Privy Council and in that capacity took technical Institute became a Latvian University part in settling the Manitoba Question about with over 3000 students. A Musical Academy has separate Catholic schools, not, however, by repeat- also been reopened in Riga. in^ the odious legislation but by diminishing the

Economic Conditions. — About 12,680 sq. miles evil results of the measure. At the Queen's Jubilee

of the area are in forest, 11,760 sq. miles in pasture in 1897, he was created a Knight of the Most

land, 11,080 in arable land. 4280 in waste land, and Distinguished Order of St. Michael and St. George,

200 in gardens. Before the war the Latvian flax and was accorded the leading place among the

crop was about 35,000 tons per annum, but in colonial representatives in the Jubilee procession,

1919-20 only 16,000 tons were available for export, was made a member of the Imperial Privy Council,

The forest lands 3neld about 172,500,000 feet of and received from the President of the French

timber annually, 14% of which is exported. On Republic the star of a grsuid officer of the Legion

1 July, 1920, there were 1242 industrial enterprises of Honor, the highest rank but one of the national

in liitvia, employing 12,000 Lands. During the order. On his return to Canada public honors

German offensive against Russia, the Russians were accorded to him in all of the principal cities

devastated the coimtry in order to leave nothing and decorations of every description were bestowed

but the bare land for the invaders, thus completely upon him. Edinburgh and Glasgow were especially

destro3dng the economic life of the countiy. In insistent on honoring him. In 1907 he attended

1920, 119 works were subsidized and the amount the Imperial Conference at London as one of the

of subsidy was 19,211,461 rubles (1 ruble = $0.51 representatives of Canada and was granted the

normal exchange). Before the war Riga was the freedom of the cities of London, Bristol, Liverpool,

leading port of the Russian Empire, the total turn- and other cities. In 1911 he represented Canada

over of its trade being over $18,000,000. In 1920 at the convention of King George. He finally fell

the export trade, most of which (67%) went to from power in September, 1911, when the Liberals

Great Britain was valued at 1,075,500,000 rubles; were beaten, the imports, 2,061,100,000 rubles. Lansanne and Gtoneva, Diocese op (Lauban-

iJwiujays.— Three RuMian steam hues converge on nensis et Genevenbis: cf. C. E., IX-40b), in

Latvian ports, viz.: the Riga-Tsaritsm hne, the Switzerland immediately subject to the Holy See.

Wmdau-Moscow hne and the Libau-Romni line. Rt. Rev. Joseph Deruaz, appointed to this see in

On 1 January, 1921, 10 steamboats of 9003 tons iggo, died 26 September, 1911, and was succeeded

and » sailing vessels of 7789 tons, making a total by Rt. Rev. Andr6 Bovet, bom in Autigny, 1865,

of 39 vessels of 16^ tons were sailing under ordained 1891, served as first doctor of theology

the lAtvian flag. The railway, mileage w 1716, in the University of IVibourg in 1893, yicar at

of which 516 miles are of Russian gauge; 595 of Neufchatel, professor in the college of St. Michel

European gauge, and 426 miles of narrow gau^e. j^ 1394^ federal chaplain of the Swiss army, director

Three main lines connect the country with Russia, of the seminary, appointed bishop 30 November,

RwxNT HiSTTOY.— The free state of Latvia was iqh. i^ 1912 he was made president of the perma- Riga on 18 November, 1918, and nent committee of the international Marian Con-

was recogmzed de facto by Great Britain, Japan, gyess. Under his patronage various relief and

and Italy, and several of the smaller states. The charitable associations were organized during the

Constituent Assembly met on 1 May, 1^, and ^0^^ ^ar, notable among them the Catholic

after the resignation of the Provisional Govern- mission for prisonere of war. Bishop Bovet died

ment, which conasted of a State council of 102 3 August, 1915, and was succeeded by Rt. Rev.

members, a Coalition Government, responsible to piacide CoUiard, bom in Attelens, Switzeriand,

the AMembly, was formed, all parties participatmg, jgyg appointed 6 December, 1915. He filled the

with the exception of the Social Democrats. A gee until his death 10 February, 1920, and the

Peace Treaty was signed with Moscow on 11 August present incumbent, Rt. Rev. Marius Benson, was

and ratified bv the Assembly on 2 September. It appointed to succeed him. Bom in Turin in 1876

provided for the retum to lAtvia of pubhc propert^^ he made his studies at the seminary of St. John

and for the release of Latvia from the liabilities at Lyons and the University of Fribourg, was or-

of the former Russian Empire. dained in 1899, served as vicar at La Chaux-de-

Lan, Jean Marib, and Companions. See Cabmbs, f^^^ professor of history at the seminary in

Martyrs of thb. ^^^.' ** *^® iS?A^"*S^ "" ^^U ^■^u^^^^'L^

seminary in 1919, and appointed bishop 7 May,

Laorler, Sir Wilfred, statesman, b. 20 November, 102O. In 1921 the first stone of a lower seminary

1841, at St. Lin, Province of Quebec; d. on 17 now under construction at Geneva, was blessed.

Febniaiy, 1919, at Ottawa; received his primary During the World War the Catholic Mission of

education in the parish school of St. Lin and Switzerland, organized in this diocese, was the cen-

then studied at Assumption College, in the Arch- ter of many activities in behalf of the warring

diocese of Montreal. He was a law student in coimtries. Bureaux were organized for investigating

McGill University at Montreal and was admitted cases of persons who had disappeared, for visiting

to the bar in 1864. Seven years later he entered prisoners held in Germany, and in the Central

political life as a member of the Assembly for Empires, for rendering religious service to those

Drummond and Athabaska and was elected to interned in Switzerland, for giving food and clothes

the House of Commons in 1874; and in 1877 be- to refugees, and for dispensing books of study and

came Minister of Inland Revenue in the Mackenzie conducting lectures. The International Catholic

Administration. After a defeat by a very small Union was also established for the protection ol