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laEAVENWOBTH 452 LEAVENWOBTH

was ceded to Spain, and the ecclesiastical juris- melite Fathers in 1864. All of these were of im- diction passed to the Diocese of Santiago de Cuba, mense assistance during the on-nxsh of new set- In 1789 it was attached to the Diocese of Havana, tiers which began in 1854 and continued up to the and in 1793 became a separate diocese under the commencement of the Civil War. These orders, as title of "Saint Louis of New Orleans." Its first well as the great pioneer Society of Jesus, have bishop was nominated by the King of Spain, and continued to flourish in Kansas far beyond the was consecrated in the cathedral of Havana in 1793, most sanguine hopes of their founders. Bishop and installed in New Orleans, 17 Jirne, 1795. After Miege be^an the building of the cathedral of Leav- siz years of heroic effort in Louisiana, Bishop enworth m the spring of 1864 and it was conse- Penalver y Cardenas was promoted to the See of crated by Archbishop Kenrick on 8 December, Guatemala. In October, 1800, the King of Spain 1868. Built in the Romanesque style it has no retroceded Louisiana to the French Republic and, superior of that type in this country. Financial finally, Napoleon Bonaparte disposed of the owner- difficulties arose in connection with tnis great un- ship of the whole territory to the United States dertaking, which necessitated a begging trip to on 30 April, 1803. By this transaction Louisiana South America to obtain funds for the liquidation became subject to the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of of the debt. Soon after his return in December, the Bishop of Baltimore and, in due time, acting 1874, with the permission of the Holy See, he laid under authority from Rome, Bishop Carroll ap- aside his dignity of bishop and retired to St. Louis pointed Rev. Louis William Valentine Dubourg, University. Thence he withdrew to Woodstock Administrator Apostolic of the Diocese of New College, Maryland, where he acted as cppiritual Orleans which embraced Louisiana, Upper and director. In 1877 he was sent to Detroit, Michigan, Lower. to foimd a College of the Society of Jesus, and

Dr. Dubourg assumed his duties 18 August, 1812, greatly endeared himself to the people there. In and going to Rome soon afterwards he was conse- 1880 he retired once more to Woodstock, where he crated Bishop of Louisiana by Cardinal Joseph died.

Pamfili. He was granted permission to establish John Baptist Miege was bom 18 September, 1815. his residence in St. Louis, Missouri, where he was at La Foret, Upper Savoy, Italy. He studied finally installed by Bishop Flaget on 6 January, classics and philosophy at the Seminaiy of Mon- 1818. The Religious of the Sacred Heart and the tied, Italy, entered the Society of Jesus at Milan, Lasanst Fathers arrived from France the same 23 October, 1836; was ordained 7 September, 1847, year. A band of six Jesuit scholastics with their at Rome, where he was made professor of philoso- two superiors. Father Charles Van Quickenborn phy in the Roman College. Liiven from Italy by and Father Peter J. Temmermans, all Belgians, the political troubles of the time he was sent, at his arrived from White March, Maryland, 31 May, own request, to the Indian Missions of the United 1823, and the Kansas Indian Missions were there States. In 1849 he was assistant pastor of St. and then projected. On 18 July, 1826, the Diocese Charles' Church at St. Charles, Missouri; in 1850 of Louisiana was divided, and the sees of St. he was socius of the Master of Novices at Floris- Louis and New Orleans were erected. sant, where he taught the class of moral theology.

Bishop Dubourg resigned the see of Louisiana in and from there he went to the University of St. 1826, and the same year the see of St. Louis was Louis, where he stayed until his consecration. In created, and Bishop Rosati became its first incum- 1871 he had been ffiven a coadjutor in the person of bent, while at the same time administering the Very Rev. Louis Mary Fink, prior of the Benedic- Diocese of New Orleans. He died while on a visit tine monastery at Atchison, and with some experi- to Rome, 25 September, 1843, and his coadjutor ence in the missions of Pennsylvania, Kentucky, Right Rev. Peter Richard Kenrick succeeded him New Jersey and Illinois. He was consecrated titular the same year and was made archbishop in 1847. Bishopof Eucarpia, onll June, by Rt. Rev. Thomas Archbishop Kenrick was the first bishop to visit Foley, D.D., Cfoadjutor Bishop and Administrator the Indian country beyond Missouri. of the Diocese of Chicago. Upon the retirement

In 1851, before the vast prairie country was of Bishop Miege, Bishope Fink assumed his duties opened to homesteaders, Bisnop Kenrick conse- and, although weakened b^ ill health, he never crated Rev. John Baptist Miege, S.J., Bishop of spared himself during a period of imusual financial Messenia and Vicar Apostolic of all the territory difficulties. There was lacking that organization of from Kansas to the British possessions, and from forces which belongs to a diocese, Kansas and the Missouri River to the Rocky Mountains. A all the rest of the Western country remaining a new vicariate was formed out of Nebraska and a vicariate until six years later. On 22 May, 1877,

Sart of Wyoming and Montana in 1857, but Bishop the Diocese of Leavenworth was created by Pope liege's jurisdiction remained until May, 1859. The Pius IX and Bishop Fink was transferred to tne vicariate at first had five little churches, eight new see as its first bishop, with authority over the priests and a Catholic population of nearly 5000 State of Kansas alone. When he assumed jurisdic- souls, of whom 3000 were Indians. Bishop Miege tion there were within the boundaries of Kansas 65 was an indefatigable missionary, visiting the Indian priests, 88 churches, 3 colleges, 4 academies, 1 villages, forts, trading posts, and growing towns hospital, 1 orphan asylum, 13 parish schools with such as Omaha, Denver, and other hamlets that 1700 pupils; communities of Benedictine, Jesuit, have since become great cities. In August, 1855, and Carmelite' priests; Religious of the Sacred there were seven Catnolic families in Leavenworth, Heart, Sisters of St. Benedict, Sisters of Charity, and he moved his residence from the Pottawatomie and Sisters of Loretto ; and a Catholic population mission, at St. Mary's on the Kaw, to that city, of nearly 25,000. In 1887 there were m Kansaa for a permanent location to minister to the fast 137 priests and 216 churches. This rapid progress increasing tide of immigration that had turned testifies to the zeal and activity of the priests and towards ICansas. In 1856 the Benedictines began people through all this period. Like his pre- a foundation at Doniphan, near Atchison, but a decessor, Bisnop Fink did much to encourage short time afterwards they established a priory and Catholic immigration into the State and a number a college in the latter city. At the invitation of of Catholic settlements were formed under his the Bishop, the Sisters of Charity of Nazareth, influence and guidance. He sought out young eccle- Kentucky, came to Kansas in 1858 and the Car- siastics in the seminaries of Europe and America