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census the total white population of the diocese with Russia at Moscow, defining the boundary,

is 106,000, and the total Catholic population 26,000. This treaty gave to Lithuania territories claimed

■ri*!. i / « in. T^ -r^ «^. V A . 1 , by the Poles^ who asserted their rights over the

Lithuania (cf. C.E., IX-2g2b).— An independent old province of Suvalki, a part of Grodno, the

Republic which includes the former Russian prov- city of Vilna itself, and certain other portions, cut-

mce of Kaunas (Kovno), the province of Vilnius ting off Lithuania from Russia by a corridor running

(Vilna), mmus the districts of Disna and Vileika, between Russian and Lithuanian territories to

part of the province of Gardmos (Grodno), the Latvia. Hardly had this treaty been concluded,

provmce of Suvalki minus the southern parts of when the Lithuanians came in conflict with the

the Suvalki district and Augustovo and parts of Poles, who insisted on boundary rectifications, and

the province of Cpurland and the district of also on occupying Vilna and using Lithuania's rail-

Illuksta. The boundaries of the country are still roads in their offensive against the Bolsheviki. Hos-

m dispute, Poland claiming certain important ter- tilities ceased for a while pending a settlement by

ntones not ceded to her by the conference. The the League of Nations. In the meantime the Polish

latest statistics (1914) give a^ area of 69,633 sg. adventurer. General Zeligowski, decided to seize

miles and a population of 4,800,000; of the inhabi- vilna on 9 October. At present there are two

ta^, thq Lithuamans are most numerous, forming governments: the Kovno Government (Lithuanian

TO%.of the total population; the Poles, 8%, the Government, which functions at Kovno, a short dis-

Russians and White Russians, 7%; and other tance south of Vilna), and the Vilna provisional

nationahties, 2%. Memel with an area of 1080 syj. Government, which declared on 20 February, 1922,

miles IS claimed by the Lithuamans, although at for union with Poland, abrogated all treaties with

pr^ent it is administered by the Allied Powers. Soviet Russia, and claimed the right to administer

RBuaioN.—The Catholira form 75% of the popu- the Vilna territories by the Polish constitution of

lation inVilna, Kovno, and Suvalki, the Jejra, May, 1921. The Lithuanian Army includes about

Greek Orthodox, 9%; Protestants and Calvinists, 50 (xk) men.


Education. — Present statistics record about 1630 Utomfirice (Lkitmeritz), Diocesb op (Lptombb-

frammar schools, 31 secondary schools, 42 public icbnbis; cf. C. E., IX-141b), in Bohemia, Csecho-

igh schools, and several technical and agricultural Slovakia. At the conclusion of the World War

schools. The oi)ening of Vilna University is now the Catholics assembled in_ large numbers at

under consideration. seven different conventions to insist upon the indis-

FiNANcig.^The budget for 1920 which planned solubility of the marriaee state, the Catholic edu-

for a revenue of 684,000,000 marks (1 mark » 24 cation of the young in the schools, and to preserve

cents) and an expenditure of 768,050,000 marks, intact the union of Church and State. The def ec-

revealed a deficit of 84,050,000 marks. In the recent tion from the faith of thirty-five priests and several

treaty with Russia at Moscow, in place of the in- thousands of former adherents to embrace a recent

demnity for the damage done by the Russian army Czechoslovakian heresy is a matter of great regret,

in Lithuania, Russia took over the whole of the During the War the Catholic churches raised large

old Russian debt devolving; on Lithuania: in addi- sums of money for the care of the wounded who,

tion, Russia was to give Lithuania 3,000,000 rubles toeether with the destitute and orphaned, w;ere

in gold and to concede to her over 1()0,0(X) hectares sedulously attended by clergy, religious and laity,

of forest. Durins the war, the finances of the Provision was made also for the spiritual care, of

country were imoer the control of the Germans the combatants. Valuable consecrated church prop-

who issued paper money and exploited the resources erty and lands were confiscated by the Government

of the coimtry. for militaiy purposes and the present povertv of

Pboduction.— Of the land area, 45 A% is arable: the Catholics makes it impossible to buy them back

24^% consists of meadow and pasture; 20^% at the price demanded. Of special note are the fol-

of forest; 3.1% is unproductive, and 6.5% is waste lowing recently deceased: Mgr. Jacob Kasper of

land. The chief crops in 1920 were rye, 1,000,000,- Greorgswalde, honorary canon, throush whose oenefi-

000 pounds; wheat, 150,000,000 pounds; barley, cence 30 yoimg men were educatedf for the priest-

300,000,000 pounds; oats, 500,000,000 pounds; pota- hood; the learned Dr. Otto Willmann of Leitmerits,

toes, 2,000,0(X),000 pounds; peas, 120,(XK),000 pounds; professor emeritus of philosophy in the University

flax seed, 70,000,000 pounos. of Prague, author of various works of philosophy

CoMMEBCB.— In 1920, the export trade of this and pedagogy, among which are: Didaktik

country was valued at 521,797,163 marks; the im- als Bildungslehre," 'Thilosophia Propadeutik,"

port trade, 428,728,541 marks (the lathuanian Geschichte des Idealismus"; the Stadthatter Prince

mark is egual to the German mark), but owing Frans von Thun, who served the Church in

to fluctuations in the exchange the itemized values Bohemia in word and deed. The present bishop of

are not converted into United States currency, the diocese is Rt. Rev. Joseph Gross, consecrated

Lithuania has 1550 miles of railway lines, of which 5 June, 1910. Recently 3 larger (in Semily, Reichen-

1178 miles are broad gauge. berg, Wamsdorf) and 4 smaller churches were

Rbcbnt Histobt. — Lithuania was ruled by Russia, built and consecrated by Bishop Gross, until 1915, when the Germans invaded the Ismd. The Catholic population is 1,644,014, of whom As a part of the Russian Empire she shared in the two-thirds are German and the rest Czechoslovakian. revolutionary outbreaks of 1905. The Lithuanian The secular priests number 822, regular priests 144, National Assembly then met for the first time, two lay brothers 37. There are 444 parishes with 585 thousand delegates being present to demand churches, 21 monasteries for men and 4 for women, autonomy, with the continuance of federation with 1 abbey for men and 1 for women, 2 convents for Russia. This attitude continued until 1917, when men and 84 for women, 1 seminary, 1 theological the idea of complete independence was substituted university with 6 professors and 57 students, 1 col- for federation. In February, 1918, a proclamation lege for boys witn 14 teachers and 210 students, of independence was issued, and by April, 1919, a 13 colleges for girls pensioned by the Government, provisional constitution was adopted, to remain in 13 normal schools in the care of the Sisters. 1 train- force until a permanent constitution was framed. In ing school, 14 homes, 31 hospitals, 24 orphan asy- July, 1919, Poland agreed to recognize the new state, lums controlled by the Sisters, 1 deaf and dumb and a few days later a treaty of peace was signed asylum, 27 day nurseries. The normal schools were