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necessity. But the people could not sing — nor could Congress was a milestone in the history of the they understand a type of music so different from liturgical revival in the New World, anything they had ever heard. The task of the The people were not always silent onlookers at Pius X Institute was therefore a vast one, but as the litiu^ical drama. Their part originally was akin the only hope of any great movement is in the ris- to that of the chorus in the Greek drama; they ing generation, the field for the work was obviously responded to the prayers of the priest with a shout in the parochial schools. The teaching of music of approval, "Amen"; with a burst of joy, had been largely controlled by a highly specialized '^ Alleluia 1" The Kyrie was their own plea for group which knew its own subject but was more or mercy; the Credo their own act of faith. But for less out of touch with those elements of general generations the voice of the people had been culture which would enable its members to teach hushed. The Church is restoring to them their their aH according to the laws of psychological musical birthright. Since the Renaissance^ public development. The rigid didactic methods of the past worship has suffered a gradual deterioration, had served their purpose because they attempted Stealthily the principle of art for art's sake has little more than to reach the pupils with special crept into our churches through the choir. Music aptitude for music. The Pius X Institute of has been treated as an end rather than as a means Liturgical Music wished to reach a wider field, and and both music and prayer have suffered. To com- has oone so. The work of the Institute was first bat this and to make it possible to obey the Motu developed by training the children of the Annuncia- Proprio have been Mrs. Ward's aim and sole desire, tion School for Girfi, taught by the Religious of The liturgy, the complex of public worship through the Sacred Heart, and thus securing practical re^ words, t&rough gesture, through color, through suits which might be used in the trainmg of teachers, souhd — ^is the most powerful means towards con- In the summer of 1917 courses for teachers were version and sanctification. The arts, as humble first given, for lasting results cannot be achieved handmaids of the Lord, are admitted, not for their through any method of instruction, however excel- own sakes, but "to add life and efficacy to the lent m itself unless it be used by competent thoughts" and by so doing, to "train and form the teachers with adequate training in the metnod in minds of the faithful to all sanctity" (Pius X). question. Under the direction of Mother G. Stevens, Music must be primarily prayer, and furthermore, Religious of the Sacred Heart, who has been from liturgical prayer, vesting itself with the exact form the first the chief teacher and interpreter of Mrs. and spirit of the liturgy. "These qualities are to Ward's work, the Institute has flourished and won be found in the highest degree in Gregorian Chant, for itself a unique place in education and art. This which is consequently the chant proper to the is due primarily to the phenomenal results obtained Roman Church" (Pius X). Gregorian Chant, being with the children in the schools that have adopted unison music, can be sung b^ the entire people and the method, and do the work while keeping in close even by httle children. Besides the thirty-five hun- touch with its development at the center. The dred school children who sang during the Congress zeal with which teachers and educators have taken in St. Patrick's Cathedral, there were many adults, up Mrs. Ward's work and carried it on is in itself delegates from all over the United States and a proof of its value. It is these teachers, for the Europe. The seminaries of Baltimore, Rochester most part bodies of women of many different reli- and other cities co-operated with those of Dim- gious orders, who had realized the object to be woodie, in sinjging the offices. Hundreds of dele- attained ana who are pushing the work in their gates from religious communities from all over the schools. Practically every instance of its adoption coimtry took part in the singing, and for a number in a school has been the result of popular acclaim; of weeks before the event, evening rehearsals both rarely has it been enforced from without. With in churches and at the College of the Sacred Heart such splendid co-operation, the work of the Insti- were conducted under the auspices of the Pius X tute has progressed healthily and normally. In Institute of Liturgical Music, in order that the June, 1020, two years after it was established, many laity might fit themselves to join in the singing people in the United States witnessed the beginning of the Psalms. For three days the bod^ of St. Pat- of tne liturgical revival in this country when thirtv- rick's Cathedral was filled with these singers under five hundr^ children, trained by teachers of the the direction of the greatest living authority on normal school of the Pius X Institute, took part Gregorian Chant, the venerable Dom Andr6 Moc- in the International Congress of Gregorian Chant quereaiL with his late pupil Dom Gatard, then held in New York City in St. Patrick's Cathedral, prior of Famborough Abbey, England. No more under the auspices of the Most Reverend Patrick rapid and effective method could have been devised J. Hayes, Archbishop of New York. The beauty of to further this great educational movement in the the children's singii^ was praised by the Monks of Church than the bringing together of those groups Solesmes, Dom Andr6 MocquereauandDomGatard, for the Congress which gave not only a model of who led the Congress. Tne children, drawn from what the Holy See desires, but a practical illustra- forty schools of New York City and suburbs, and tion of how these desires can most easily be fulfilled, several groups from Philadelphia and suburbs, sang Through the new interest and enthusiasm aroused the Missa ae Anqelis on the opening day of the by the overwhelming success of the Congress, Congress. They had had but three ensemble re- greater impetus was given to the work of the Pius hearsals before the event, vet they sang in perfect X Institute, and in two years following the Con- unison and with a purity of tone and an enthusiasm gress the work broadened in scope. Besides the that brought tears to manv eyes. For many years teaching of the method to the children of the before the founding of the Pius X Institute of Annunciation Parish School and those of the Acad- Litur^cal Music, the Society of St. Gregory, an emy of the Sacred Heart, the work of the Institute organization of Catholic organists and choirmasters is divided into three departments: (1) the training and others interested in the advancement of the of teachers in the normal school; (2) the super- cause of sacred music, together with the Auxiliary vision of the teaching of music in all the schools Committee of the Pontifical Institute of Sacred that have adopted the Justine Ward Method; Music, had been laying the foundation for a Con- (3) Extension Work, from which department teach- gress such as this, but it was the work done by the ers are sent out all over the country to give school children that made the event possible. The normal courses in schools and colleges to bodies of