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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 17.djvu/50

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schola minor of the faculty of theologv at the of Labor is a federation of labor organizations. University, and 'includes two years of philosophy The affiliated bodies enjoy complete self-^ovem- and four of theology. The professors are all mem- ment, craft autonomy of each trade being the bers of the faculties of the University, teaching in basis upon which the national and international both the schola minor and the schola major, unions are established. The jurisdiction of the The library is the gift of the friends of the college international imions is limited to the United States and contains especially a fine collection of books and Canada, these countries being also the juris- in English on philosophical and theological sub- diction limits of the Federation itself. The powers jects from the late Archbishop John Spalding, the of the Federation are conferred upon it by the founder of the college. constitution and the annual conventions. The con- There is no museiun. A monthly publication, vention, which is a delegate body elected by the The American College BtUletin, was founded by affiliated organizations, is the supreme legislative Rev. Joseph Van der Hayden, a priest of the dio- and judicial authority. The government of the cese of Boise City, who has lived in Louvain for Federation is administered by the executive coun- the past twenty years. cil, composed of the president, secretary, treasurer,

American OoUege, Thb Sorrn (cf. C.E.,I-425<1). ?^^,1«J* lT^Si„nL^'!^,f.w VS«^^

in Rome (legal title. Collegio Pio Latino A^iericano ^| '^^^^•J^.a^T^kB^^^tStiye^

Pontificio). The present rector is Rev. Juan ir.f!™ .ffrnfmt ^hf ;„t^ti^f tkf^^^

Biga««i, and the cardinal protector is His Eminence ^attera affecting the interests of the workers which

uigiuu, luui uic voiuiuai uiui^wi " t" „rilrl*„„i ansc between conventions; these interim actions,

?"^ „W- J^»L*^te.."',«^°H™JfSS i^n however, are subject to tl^e approval of the sub^

direction of the Society of Jmus and draws Its stu- sequent convention.

dents from the many Afferent countries of the New ^^ Affiliated bodies consist of national and in-

!f°f'.±I^ ^^h^'^JZ'^^^^M ^J^tl temational unions, state federation, city central

guage spoken. In 1922 there were 104 students j^^j j ^j j • ^^ji^ted local traie and federal

Chile 11 Colombians a«ta Rica 1 Cuba 3. ^frand S^n whtef^^SItio^^'S S Guatemala 2, Mexico 36, Paraguay 2, Peru 8, the ^JflKi:!i;^ tk^T, o J^ J;~^f i«^ TffiKo^^^ ♦« ♦Ko Philippines \^onoR^ f^^± I^ ^S^.'SS-^^^o^ £l Uruguay 1, and Venezuek L There is an international unions have blen formed out of the 25 students over the number of {^^y^^^'^^^^X directly affiliated local unions. The Federation has students are S"^*«v« ^eacoM 3 s^^^ affiliated with it (in 1922) 112 national and inter- 75 without ordere; of these 17 a^^^^ ^^i^^^l ^^- representing 36,247 local unions; law, 45 of theology, 39 philosophy, and 3 of the ^^ ^^^^ federations, 910 city central bodies, and numamties. ,.^. - ^_ ... ^^,,^„^ „i,- i, 658 local trade and federal labor unions. There The benefits denved from this college, which ^ g ^ departments, with 783 local de- gathers together students from so many countries ^Jltm^nt councils »'**^'"'="" wi u loo iuwm u to study in the shadow of th^^ P The averaj?e dues-paying memberehip of the be Been by reading the lists of honors conferred ^q^^^^^^ bod^gg ^^ ^ism in 1900; ten years

a"" '^^Ji^^A^fen"^ n^'^Pi^nJ'wirn^^nH^'^^^^^ later the number was 1,562,102. rising 'to 4,078,740

^^^^'l^U^ffS^Kl fh^m i^^cSL^n ^n ^ ^^' The prolonged Unemployment of 1920-21

good works effected by them, especially m m- ^^^^^ ^^^ average dues-paying memberehip to

strucUng m diocesan seminaries. 3,906,528 in the latter year. Although mo5 of

American Federation of Labor, The, was or- the trade unions in the United States are affiliated

ganised at Columbus, Ohio, 8 December, 1886, by with the Federation, the railway brotherhoods are

a convention composed of representatives of the not. The railway department of the Federation,

national and international trade unions. The sixth however, includes railway workers' unions with a

annual convention of the Federation of Organized membership of 600,000.

Trades and Labor Unions of the United States The revenue of the Federation is mainly derived and Canada (founded at Pittsburgh, Pa., in 1881), from charter fees and taxation. The charter fee then in session at Columbus, voted to dissolve and for national and international unions is five dollars; merge with the Federation. In 1889 the conven- for state federations, city central bodies, and local tion of the Federation declared that the *'con- trade and federal labor unions, fifteen dollars. The tinuity of the American Federation of Labor be national and international unions pay a per capita recognized and dated from the year 1881 in all tax of one cent per member per month; the future documents"; therefore it is usually stated state federations and city central bodies pay a that the Federation was founded in 1881. The tax of ten dollars per year; the directly affiliated primary object of the Federation is the thorough locals pay a per capita tax of 25 cents per mem- organization of the waee-eamers into local trade ber per month, 17% cents of which is set aside for and labor unions, the federation of the local unions strike benefits and subscription to the official into central trade and labor unions, the combi- journal of the Federation, leaving but 7% cents nation of the central bodies in state and provincial for the Federation's general expenses The total organizations, the establishment of national and revenue of the Federation for 1900 was $71,125; in international unions, and the federation of all the 1910 the revenue rose to $193,470; in 1920 it was organizations in the American Federation of Labor. $921,255, and in 1921, $832,169. The generaf object of the Federation is the pro- The political policy of the American Federation tection and promotion of the economic, political, of Labor is non-i)artisan. This principle is applied and social ri^nts of all working people. Proceeding both in qualifications for representation in the con- from the principle that the economic interests of ventions as well as in contemporaneous political all workers are identical and can only be safe- action. The 1890 convention declared that a guarded by associated effort, the Federation urges political party of whatsoever nature is not entitled the workers to unite in trade unions regardless of to representation in the American Federation of nationality, sex, color, creed, race, or politics. Labor"; the 1895 convention declared that "party

As the name impliesf, the American Federation politics .... shall have no place in the convene