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until his death . He is perhaps most widely known for of Christian morality and justice is apparent from the his work as an ardent worker in the St. Vincent De fact that so manv of his proposals nnd expression in Paul Society, New York City, of which he became the progranune of reform laid down by Pope Leo XIII President, and of his general activities in charitable in his Encyclical "Rerum Novarum" (cf. Moon. op. work of all kinds. He was a member of the Charity cU, infra, 163-65). He unhesitatingly acceptea the Organization Society of New York, of the State Encyclical of Leo XIII in 1892, directing Catholics to Board of Charities, of the Board of Managers and its accept the Republic as a fait accompli, this act cost president for many years, of the Manhattan State him his seat at Pontivy, but he was soon returned Hospital for the Insane; one of the founders and to the Chamber from Morlaix (Finist^re). In 1897 president of the Fourth State Conference (1903) of he was elected to the French Academy. In 1901 he the New York State Conference of Charities and became vice-president of the new Popular Liberal Correction, etc. He wrote a number of papers upon Party, which the religious intolerance of Waldeck- charitable matters, characterized by soundness of Rousseau'b Government had forced the Social Catho- judgment, practicaJity, wide sympathy and a tren- lie deputies to found in order to safeguard democratic chant and lucid style. political liberty and carry out their plan of Christian __ . . ,, ^ T^ i_ social legislation. He continued to warn the Socialists Mun, Adrien-Albbrt Marie, Comb de, French and the pacifists, who were the mainstay of the anti- statesman and orator, b. at Lumigny,Seme-et-Mame, clerical politicians, that while they could find time on 23 February, 1841; d. at Bordeaux, on 6 October, to attack religion and destroy the Catholic schools 1914. The future modem crusader of the Church in they were not only neglecting the opportunity of aid- France was the great-grandson of Helvetius, the j^g the workingmen but by their unpatriotic policies matenaUst philosopher whose writmgs did so much were rapidly bringing about the collapse of France, injury to rehgion, but his mother was the saintly ^iiled with patriotism, he declared to them that Eugenie de la Fenronnays, sister of Mme. Augustus Agadir, Algeciras, Tangiers and Casablanca proved Craven. He graduated from Saint-Cyr, served m that war with Germany was inevitable, and that they the cavalry in Algeria and was decorated for bravenr ^ere neglecting preparations. It was only shortly SrJ M Franco-German War, m which he was captmred. before the cataclysm, however, that the government While imprisoned at Aachen with his feUow;officer, listened to his warnings. When old age rendered ReuiS de la Tour du Pin, he heard with deep interest pubUc speaking more difficult for him, de Mun of Bishop von Ketteler s social work. After his redoubled his efforts with his pen. When the war release he was adjutant to the military governor of began his daily articles in the ficho de Paris nerved his Paris during the Commune. Reflecting on the horrors countrymen, and his cheery messages to the soldiers he was witnessing, he blamed these fundamentaUy on in the midst of the initial disast^^pired them with the neglect by the nch and the educated of the social the thought that they had still God and Joan of Arc duties imposed on them by the Christian Law. as ^ith them; and with the Marne victorv, he announced Cathohc patriotic soul was stured; henceforth his life to them that their final triumph was assured. He died and talents were devoted to two objects: to save four weeks later just after penning his last daily France from being undermined by the anti-mihtansts message of hope. Among Comte de Mun's published and anti-clencals and to strengthen it to resist future ^orks are: "Discours et Icrits divers" (7 vols.): "Ma aggression; and the social regeneration of France and vocation sociale": and "Combats d'hier et d'aujourd'- the betterment of the workers by activities Mid le^^^^ hui"; "Contre la separation"; "La loi des suspects"; lation based on Christian principles. In 1872 with "Les congr^ations religieuses devant la Chambre."

La Tour du Pm and Eugene Meignen, he founded at Giraud. Un grand FrangaiM; db Qrandiiai0ON. Le CamU

BeUeville the first of the famous Cerdea Catholiquea Albert de Mun in Etude* (CXLI). 25-52; Browns, a Modem

d'auvriers (Catholic workingmen's clute) in which ?M?;^"i^<!!5.S'1.'i:i«»rSSi'^iAJ£'liii2^

the workers could meet for social enjoyment and also (New York, 1021 ). participate in lectures and conferences on social and

reli^ous topics, the programme and principles of Munich, Univebsitt of. — ^The number of matric-

which were set forth in their review, "L' Association ulated students at the University of Munich during

catholique." Under the influence of de Mun and the Winter term 1920-21 was 8395. of whom 897 were

L^n Harmel, the Council of studies of the Cerdes women. To these may be addea 1030 non-matric-

catholiquea graduall)r advanced beyond the Le Play ulated auditors (hdrer) and 230 non-matriculated

and P^rin conservative schools of Catholic sociology, women auditors (horerinnen) , The total number of

emphasizing the necessity of social legislation, students was 9565. approaching the programme of the German, Austrian

and Swiss Catholics. They were subjected to a very Munlch-Frelslng, Archdiocese op (Monacensis

vigorous attack by the P6rin school aided by Mgr. bt Fribingensis; cf. C. E., X-631a), in Bavaria.

Freppel for some years, but finally the de Mun-Coun- His Eminence Franz Cardinal Bettinger, who filled

cil of Studies program was approved by the Interna- this see 1909-17, was chiefly responsible for the

tional Congress of Catholic sociologists at Li^ in present organization of the diocese. Under his

1890. direction the Kirchengenilinde-Ordung was formed

To sive himself up to this work de Mun resigned to collect funds for the establishment of new par-

from the army in 1875 and was elected from Pontivy ishes and the building of new churches. He gave

(Morbihan) in 1876 as deputy to the French Chs^nber, particular attention to the care of Catholic youth,

where he was to reveal ms intense patriotism and his with which object he encouraged Dr. Michael

great oratorical gifts for so many years. He has the Buchberger in the foundation (1910) of the Katho-

plory of initiating beneficial legislation for the work- lischer Jugendfuers orge-Verein and took a firm

ing-class, even before the Swiss Government invited stand against the enemies of the Church in the

the nations to confer on this matter. He is found press by the spreading of Catholic writing and

advocating legislation to bring about the joint associa- the foundation of the Catholic Preffi Orgamzation

tion of lalK>r and capital as early as 1872; the Sunday of Bavaria, the growth of which was largely due to

day of rest, old age pensions and sickness insurance the efforts of Dr. Lewis Miiller of Munich,

in 1886; the eight-hour day, prohibition of child During the World War the spiritual welfare of

labor, the forbidding of woman labor in certain the Bavarian troops was airectea from the diocese

unhealthy and dangerous work in 1889. How con of Munich and all orders came from the arch-

formahle his social programme was with the principles bishop, who acted as field bishop of the army.