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pastor in the manufacturing centers, diocesan presi- Murphy, John Benjamin, b. near Appleton,

dent of the young men's societies, president of the Wisconsin, 21 December, 1857; d. at Mackinac

preparatory seminary, Collegium Ludgerianum, and Island, Michigan, 11 August, 1916, distinguished

vicar general, and was well fitted to undertake the surgeon and teacher of medicine; son of Michael

exacting duties of bishop of this extensive diocese, and Ann (Grimes) Murphy. He graduated from

in which there are 444 parishes, 444 churches, and the public high school of Appleton, taught school

47 succursal churches. In 1921 the Catholics num- for a year, and then took up the study of medicine

bered 1,695,147; other denominations 837,196. Of at Rush Medical College, Chicago, where he

the 1404 secular priests 1121 are engaged in parochial obtained his degree in 1879. He served as an

work and 165 in teaching. There are 166 regulars intern in Cook County Hospital, and then for two

and 360 lay brothers, 19 monasteries and 1 abbey years was a partner of Dr. Edward Lee, one of

'for men, 7 convents of contemplative orders with J^^ attendmg surKeons in the hospital. He used

326 Sisters and 6 mother-houses of various orders ^}^J^^^ '^?u!^^^!!l^ 'SJtlffo^I^ i^nJi.lfv in

lr^J'i^Zi::vtrJ^A^^ vrer,"wht h^r ^k^d tttiuS^^^^^

l^eX^l'S^ Kl^rcotenTfir^^^^^^ ^ iSot^^ilhfn tlU^ Z^& SS

of the nuns for foreign miasions. These orders have T^'f i" j "Jf* Within, a few years l^^J^

52 houses ia other Gilrman dioceses, and 162 ou^de ;?:i'*^"^,„"'^T».^ri,*Sflpi^w^?nSri^

of Germany. Twelve orders, whoi mother-houses i^t,P!n;!"iliLT tnS' K h„H don^ tho fi^

are not situated in the diocew of Miinster. have 61 f *u*^!t'*1i?n2^'M?.lwi^^ ♦»& nfllroS

houses in this diocese enirased in thp car*, of thp nephropexy, while Murphy 8 own teacher Billroth

riKid inldutSil Xrl was revolutionizing the surgery of the stomach

mv J- ^"^"'*'*Y""* w"«-^- Murphy came back to America inspired to go on

The diocesan senunary is at Munster. The Uni- ^jth original work. In his early thirties he in-

versity of Munster is a state institution and has vented the anastomosis button which made the

thirteen professors in the theological faculty, hitherto very difficult surgery of the intestines not

Among the state-aided secondary schools there are: on]y possible, but even easy. It came to be known

1 diocesan gymnasium with 10 clencal professors, by his name throughout the world and at once

16 gymnasia, 36 municipal gymnasia, 51 secondary called attention to his opening career. Though no

schools of vanoiffl kinds for boys, either public or ]onger used it literally changed the whole aspect

pnvate, 68 secondary schools for girls, either public of intestinal surgery. After this his studies in the

or pnvate, 6 Catholic normal schools, 135 public possibilities of surgery of the gall tract opened up

and pnvate continuation schools, industrial, com- new fields for investigation and achievement, and

mercial, and agricultural. The common elementary he did excellent pioneer work and stimulated others

schools are denominational municipal schools under to follow him. He next took up the problem of

the supervision of the Government. Religious repairing injured blood vessels or bringing them

17 hospitals which belong to parishes or political some years before Murphy took up the problem of

men s societies under the direction of priests, 300 emphasized its possibilities, but it has since been

Marian sodalities for young men, 90 journeymen's employed continuously in many parts of the coun-

imions (Gesellenvereine), 40 merchants' associations, try for selected cases, and is considered a life-

109 men's associations, 12 working giris* unions, 12 saving procedure. Still looking for further fields

servant girls* associations, 325 congregations of of surgical development he took up the study of

Catholic yoimg men, and there are Christian joint diseases, with great benefit to many cripples,

mothers' societies in all parishes. These cases had to be studied individually and

During the war 50 priests volunteered as nurses, could not be grouped or generalized, but Murphy

later they were appointed war chaplains and worked showed the possibilities of affording great relief

with great zeal and selfnsacrifice. The members of and making life ever so much more livable for

the various charitable organizations (Elizabeth these poor cripples.

Verein, St. Vincent de Paul Society, Christian It is as a teacher almost more than a surgical Mothers and the Knights of Malta) unselfishly gave operator that Doctor Murphy deeply influenced their services to relieve the misery and distress of the surgery of our day not only in America, but the war. Beside the nuns of the nursing orders, also in Europe. His first teaching position was countless young women offered their services as that of instructor in surgery in Rush Medical Col- voluntary nurses. The bells and chimes of numer- lege in 1884. He nex* filled the position of pro- ous churches were requisitioned by the Government fessor of surgery in the College of Physicians and during the war. Surgeons in 1892. For two years he was professor

of surgery and co-head of the department in Rush

Mnro-Lncano, Diocese op (Mttranensis; cf. Medical College. For the next fourteen years,

C. E., X — 646b), in the province of Petenza, North- with the exception of the two years (1905-1907 at

em Italy, suffragan of (yonza. This see is filled by Rush), he was head of the Department of Surgery

Rt. Rev. Giuseppe Scarlata, bom in the diocese of at Northwestern University Medical School. For

Caltanisetta in 1859, served as pastor of Villalba, more than thirty years he had been attending and

named a prelate of the Holy See 10 November, 1910, then consulting surgeon at Alexian Brothers' Ho»>

and appomted bishop 27 November, 1911, succeeding pital, and was consulting surgeon for St. Joseph's

Cardinal Asoelesi, transferred to Santa Agata dei Hospital, Columbus Hospital, and the Hospital for

0)ti, 19 June, 1911. According to 1920 statitsics Crippled Children. He was for many years the

this diocese embraces a Catholic population of attending surgeon and chief of staff at Mercy Hoe-

40,180, 11 parishes, 85 secular priests, 48 seminarians pital, where most of his important surgical work

and 72 churches or chapels. was done.