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the '^Church of the Higher Life/' founded in Boston estant Episcopal churches in the United State s and

in 1894 by Mrs. Van-Anderson, and still existing in to some Anglican churches in Great Britain The

1919^ though without a leaaer. The Greenacre usual methcNi employed is the laying on of hands

Conferences, also founded in 1S94. at Eliot, Maine, and anointing. This practice was taken up as a

became later a summer center for New Thought protection against Christian Science^ utilizing, as

gatherings. Afterwards this organization was opened the leaders stated, the truth underl3nng the latter,

to Swamia with their Vedantic philosophy from namely the influence of moral over physical states.

India, and Miss Farmer, the founder, finally became a Some other Protestant organizations have inaugurate

devotee of Bahaism. In 1895 the Metaphysical Club ed a similar movement; moreover, especially in its

was founded in Boston, and this society, through its earlier history. New Thought numoered among

active propaganda, was the first which made a de- its adherents not a few Prot^tant ministers who at

termined dfort to spread its views and try to gain a the same time retained their denominational afi&lia-

general following, and from it in a sense grew the tion.

more general organization which later sprang up. (2) The Assemblies of Oodj Oeneral Cauncilf or-

The first national convention was held in 1894; the ganized in Arkansas and Missouri in 1914, accept

first to be held under the name of New Thought was some orthodox doctrines. They hold the coming

in Boston in 1899. This Boston convention organized of Jesus and the beginning of the millenium as im-

"The International Metaphysical League (in passing minent, and profess to have the gift of divine healing,

we may note that included in the purpose" of this The^ reported in 1921 about 118 organizations, 937

league, was "to teach the universal Fatnerfaood and ministers, and 6703 members.

Motherfiood" [!] of God), which met in 1900, electing (3) The Christian Catholic Church in Zian, known

oflScers from tne United States, England ^ Australia formerly as the Christian Catholic Apostolic Church

and New Zealand. Apparently this organization was in Zion (the Dowieites), was founded by John

not very successful; in 1903 an "International New Alexander Dowie who, claiming to have been mirac-

Thought Convention" was held in Chicago, which ulously cured, organized a healing association in

met annually until 1906, when a reorganization was Australia, in 1888. Having come to Chicago in

effected. In 1908 the name was changed to "The 1890, he changed the name of his "Divine Healing

National New Thought Alliance," and this in turn Association" to that listed above, in 1896. In 1900

became in 1914 "The International New Thought he founded a town, Zion Citv, Illinois, where he es-

Alliance " the first international convention being tablished headquarters. Though he proclaimed

held" in Ix)ndon in that year, there being present rep- himself "Elijah the Restorer of All Things" in 1901,

resentatives of the American body, of the "Higher and "First Apostle" in 1903, he was ousted by his

Thought Centre" of Great Britain and of the "Ligue followers in 1906, and Wilbur G. Voliva, the present

Internationale de la Nouvelle Pens^^" and 'Tja leader, succeeded him. This sect condemned all Chris-

.Soci6t6 Unitive" of France. The first mtemational tian denominations in general, but particularly was

congress was held at San Francisco in 1915, the Christian Science excoriated by Dowie, who also

Panama-Pacific Exposition dedicating to it one day considered doctors as inspired by the devil. Dowie

known as New Thought Dav. The international claimed, about 1905, to nave thousands of followers

headquarters are now m Washington, D. C. Out- all over the world. The government statistics for

side of the United States the movement has (as of the 1906 reported for this church, 17 organizations (in

year 1919) organizations or representatives in tha 10 states), 17 church edifices or halls, 35 ministers and

Hawaiian Islands, England, Scotland, Ireland, 5865 members, of whom 40 per cent were males and

Australia, New ^aland, France, Chile^ and Brazil. 60 per cent females. Since then the association haa

It is impossible to ^ve any accurate statistics since its not made public its statistics; the population of Zion

followers are also m man^ cases members of various City, which since 1911 is governed by a mayor and

sects. Probably it has its greatest strength in the coimcil (quasi-ecclesiastical, however), was 4789

central and western states of the United States. It in 1910 and 5580 in 1920.

is claimed that the Unity Society of Kansas City. (4) The Church of the Universal Messianic Messa(f€

Missouri, has a membership of 50,000 scattered is an outgrowth of the Christian Yoga Society which

throughout the country. The leaders of the move- was founded at Spokane, Wash., in 1911, by A. K.

ment claim that it has influenced "millions." On the Mozumdar after a study of oriental religions. This

basis of the number of magazines (they are quite nu- church purposes to "bnng about unity with Onmi-

merous) devoted to the propagation of New Thought present God on the part o? its members, in imitation

ideas an estimate that there are possibly 200,000 of the Great Master, Jesus Christ; to heal the sick

devotees in the world may be hazarded, but the by an appeal to God for an interposition of divine

number of full members (those not affiliated with power," and to teach the great mystery of life. It

any other church) can hardly be as high as 100,000 accepts no creed and recognizes no sacrament, nor

in the United States, and not much above that ministerial office. In 1921 there were 5 organizations

figure in the world. and 266 members.

Ot^er Healing Associations. — Besides the two (5) The Apostolic Faith Movement originated in

leading organizations, Christian Science and New 1900, not as a denomination strictly so-called, but

Thou^t, in which "divine healing" plays a promi- rather as a loose union of free-lance evangelists. The

nent part there are many others m which this doc- chief doctrine and practice is that of nealing, the

trine finds a place. Some of these are organized leaders visiting and praying for the sick while those

churches (a few are found even among the so-called at a distance are treated by correspondence ^ and by

"evangelicals"), while others are more specifically sending them objects such as handerkerchiefs that

healing associations. Although, with possibly one have been "blessed" for that purpose. Their head-

or two exceptions, they are not genetically connected quarters are at Los Angeles, Cal., Portland, Ore.» and

with New Thougnt they may be briefly summarized Minneapolis. In 1921 they had 24 churches, 26

here: ministers and 2196 members. They carry on foreign

(1) The Emmanuel Movement arose in the Prot- missionary work in many countries, estant Episcopal Church about 1906, originating in (6) The Church Transcendent^ known also as the

Emmanuel Church, Boston. Practice here was con- "Transcendental Way," founded at Warren, Ohio,

fined to treatment of functional nervous disorders, in 1915, holds as one of its principles that mind

and usually in connection with the aid of regular transcends matter and is the conqueror over evil.

physicians. The movement spread to many Prot- It aims at a universal religion transcending "all the