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schools; women: Gray Nuns, Sisters of Mercy, Archdiocese of; Cleveland, Diocese op; Colxtm-

Sisters of St. Joseph, Franciscan Sisters, Ursulines, bus, Diocese of.

Sisters of Charity and Daughters of the Holy Ghost. Education and "Chabtit.— Education is compul-

T^e diocese comprises a Catholic population of 100,- gory for aU children between the ages of six and

600: 140 ycidar and 20 regular clergy, 101 churches fif^e^ There are in the State 11,475 school-houses,

^S'^mJ^otntaK*!' ^^ ??,707 elementa^ «.hools, with^224 t^he« 

aeminarians, 13 academies for fcoys, 12 academies for (^,171 men Mjd 25,053 women), and 880,290 enrolled

young ladies, 20 parochial schools with 4873 pupils, Pupils (450,371 bovs and 429,919 girls). The 588

2 orphan asylums caring for 314 orphans; a totiS o^ public high schools have 6914 teachers, 132,711 pupils;

5382 young people are under Catholic care: 8 hospitals ^ normal schools, 1127 students and JJ teachers,

are caring for 5461 patients and 1 home /or the aged JJ® educational expenditure m 1919 was 160,040,295.

is establiSied There are provisions for the establishment of public

schools for the deaf, blind, and crippled. Lincoln's

OgUastra, Diocese of (Oleanstrensis; cf . g^^^*? ^^ ^T <»°?^®^, » ^^^^* ?^^^y-. ^^

and was pro-vicar general and arohpriest of the lowed by wurtdecimon. In 1912 two normal schools

cathedral when he was elevated to the episcopate, were estabhshed, one at Bowhng and anothca- at Kent.

According to the statistics for 1920 the diocese con- The laws are governing private and parochia schools

tains 29 parishes, 46 secular prieste, 20 seminarians, ?« follows: *;A11 private and parochial schools which

63 churches and chapels, and a Catholic population "Struct pupils w^o have not conapleted a course of

of 64 600. study equivalent to that prescribed for the first seven

' grades of the elementaiy schools of Ohio shall be

Ohio (cf. C. E., XI-225d)— The area of the State Ja^ght in the English language. German shaU not

is 41,040 square miles. The population in 1920 was be taught below the eighth grade. All teachers in

5,759,394, an increase of 20.8% since 1910. Of this, PJ}^^ ^^ onvate schools must take the oath of

63% was irban; 36.2 was rural. The average number aU^ance. No rehgious se<;t or secte rfiaJl have any

of inhabitants to the sq. mile was 141.4 as against 117 exclusive right to or control of ^y part of the school

in 1910. Ohio has 80 cities, the largest bemTcieve- J^^s of the state (VI-2). Private schools must

Und, with a population of 796,841. Seven cities J;^^,8»°^« ^"£5^^ ^^ "^ ^^^ P^^^^ if^^^r*

have more thai 100,000 inhabitants; of these, Akron The flag must be displayed on or near each pubbc

showed in 1920 the greatest rate of increase, having and private school, buddmg. To elmunate idl«nw

trebled its population (201%). The principal cities among boys and girls between the fi«ea of 1? and 18

with their populations are as follows: Akron 208,435; years the new school law of Ohio (1921) provides that

Cincinnati 401,247; Columbus 237,031; Toledo 243,- » chUd more than 16 yeara old may leave school to

164: Dayton 162,559; Youngstown 132,358. «<> *? ^^f^^ ^ ^e hw completed the work of the seventh

eJconomic Status.— Although the number of grade, has passed, a physical examination and can

farms in 1919 was 256,695, a decrease of 5.6% since present a written promise of employment. U he

1909, the value of farming property was $3,095,666,- meets these recmirements he receives an age and

336, an increase of 62.7%; the total area of /arms was w^oohng certificate, but this is not a pemanent

23,515,888 acres. The value of live stock was $287,- release from school; it is oidy a release for the time

655,118; of all crops, $607,037,562 (an increase of ^^e child is employed by the one employer H he

174.6% since 1909). The chie/ crops are: com, of changes employers he must seciue a new certificate,

which 149,844,626 bushels were grown in 1919, at a ^^ the child is to be employed by his parents, the sai^

value of i217,274,709; wheat, 58,124,351 bushels, procedure apphw, and if he lc«es his posiU^^

$127,873,474; tobacco, 64,420,472 pounds, $13,528,- ^^"^ ^ sehool. The bc»rd of chanties oonsiste of

302; beet sugar, 365,415 tons, $3,836,861. Dairying seven members, appointed by the governor, who is

is on the increase, the value of dairy products in 1919 «>o//l«o a member and president of the board, has

being $81 148 586. supervision of all the chanties of the state.

Ohio ranks Lurth of all the States in the Union for Recent History and Legislation. — Of great

mineral products, coal and clay manufactures rank- importance in the State's history was the constitu-

ing foremost. . Tne latest (1919) census of mining tional convention held in Columbus in 1912. Of the enterprises productive

1064 mines ^ __, _ .

natural gas wells. The value of products was $134,- eight-hour dav on all public work, a limitation of the

518,505. The census of manufactures mentions veto power of the governor,* state-wide primaries and

16,125 establishments, 978,068 people enga^ in civil service, an easier removal of Stete officials,

manufacture, earning $1,218,366,093, and turmng out conservation of natural resources, including legis-

producte worth $5,100^8,728. The capital invested lative control over the methods of mining, change in

was $3^810,859,879. There are 9160 miles of railway the judicial system, and the elimination of unneces-

in the State and 3227 miles of electric railway. The sary legal delays; regulation of corporations, munici-

lake and river traffic is very large. Ohio has 775 State pal home rule , and the privilege of cities to choose their

banks and 370 national banks, with deposits over own form of government. In 1914 a new site of 1500

$3,000,000. The State debt on 1921 was $510,266, acres was chosen for the penitentiary. The coal

465, including the Canal loan, not bearing interest, strike of 1914 and the consequent shut-down of the

Religion. — According to the latest United States mines in the Stete brought great hardship to the mi- Census of Religious Denominations, there were ners and caused great loss to the industxv. By a decision 2.291,793 members of all denominations, 843,856 of the Supreme Court in 1915 Cleveland came into CathoUcs, 399,045 Methodist Episcopalians; 138,800 possession of a tract of lake-front land worth several Presbyterians: 109,732 Disciples; 77,775 Baptists millions which the railways had cocupied for half a (Northern (Jonvention); 20^151 Jews; 164,224 century. Floods caused great damage in the State in Lutherans. For Catholic statistics see Cinonnati, 1915. The Federal Suffrage Amendment was ratified