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relkioius, 12 seminarians. Educational instituUons aflninst a priest, Paul Miraglia, whom he had attempt- include 3 colleges for boys with 33 teachers and an ed to consecrate bishop. These two now made attendance of 387; 1 college for women with 12 teach- common cause, and excepting a brief interval about ers and an attendance of 68: 3 academies with 34 1906, when Vilatte unsuccessfully attempted to teachers and an attendance or 315, 5 training schoob organize the Associations of Worship in France after with 28 teachers and 611 students; 51 elementary the separation of Church and State, their woric has __!_ _i_ ^^-.i^ rtr.« ._ t^ J .«-, ., ^ 1^^^ chiefly in the Middle West.

Although not ecclesiastically united to the Old

. i: Catholic sect of Europe the movement, being doc-

St. Francis, Oklahoma City, in care of 22 Sisters of trinally the same , is generally given this designation.

St. Francis; St. Mary's Infirmarv, McAlester, con- They were first listed in the United States reports in

ducted by 9 Sisters of Charity of the Incarnate Word; 1916. They then reported three quasi independent

and Ponca City Hospital, Fonca City, in charge of branches: the Old Roman Catholic Church, the

6 Sisters of St. Joseph. Organizations amongst the American Catholic Church, and the Catholic Church

clergv include the Eucharistic League, Infirm^iests' of North America, Vilatte oeing directly in charge of

Fund, the Association for Three Masses. For the the two first, while the third traced its source to the

laity there are the Knights of Columbus^ Catholic Jansenists of Utrecht. To these three two others

Foresters, the Bohemian Catholic Societv. Three may be added, the Polish National Catholic Church

Catholic monthlies are published, the ' 'Orphans' Rec- of America, a body made up chiefly of schismatic

ord," the "Indian Sentmel," and the Lattle Flower congregations, ^nerally led away from the Church

Magazine." by recreant priests^ and the Lithuanian National

Smce 191 1 the Cathedral'parish, Oklahoma City, has Catholic Church which by immigration is an off-shoot

been divided twice, the first time (1911) to form the of the parent body in Europe. Furthermore the

Sacred Heart parish, and again in 1917, when the original Old Catholic body in Europe seems also to

parish of Our Lady of Peipetual Help was formed, claim organization here; in 1919 their American arch-

The Mission of Our Lady of Mount Carmel for Mexi- bishop, de Berghes de Raches, entered the Church

cans was founded in metropolis in 1921. In 1916 the (he had never been a Catholic). He entered the

Sacred Heart parish in Tulsa was erected, and in 1921 Augustinian novitiate, but died 17 November, 1920.

a parish under the same patronage was founded in The three "Qld Catholic" bodies in the United

Muskogee. The Discalced Carmelite Fathers from S^tes reported in 1916, 21 organizations and 14,200

the province of Valencia, Spain, came to the diocese members. In 1920 the "Old Roman Catholic

in 1915, and have charge of the parish of Our Lady Church" had disappeared, having merged with the

of the Holy Rosary. Hartsbome. "American Catholic Church" under that title, and

During the World War four French Benedictine under the leadership of Vilatte. The two bodies

Fathers of the Sacred Heart Abbey entered the French reported in 1920, 9 churches, 19 ministers, and

Army. Three others and three diocesan priests served 34,000 members. The Polish National Catholic

as chaplains in the American Anny. Hiroughout the Church claimed in the same year 34 churches, 45

diocese effective work was done in the council of ministers, and 28,000 members; the Lithuanian

defence, in the various bond and Red Cross drives. National Catholic Church reported 7 churches, 3

etc. ministers, and 7343 members.

JUcerU Sehismatieal Mo9em«nU among CathoUca of the UniUd

€nA ClAtTiAllMi f/*f r* T? YT OQRKN i^ «kA State* in American Ecdeeuutieal Renew, XXI (1809), i, ibid.,

TT«;*fi GfT aA -.u* j •' ,-^i— 235b), m the XXIII (1900), 287; ReligiouM Bodiee, 1916(WaiSSon, 1919);

United btates. After the development of the Old Year Book of the Churehee, (liew York, tLtmvMl).

Catholic movement in Europe there erew up here, in N. A. Weber. some sections, particularly^ the Middle West, a cer- tain tendency to sympathize with these schismatics. O'Laary, Peter, leading modem Gaelic writer, The leader in this movement was J. R. Vilatte (or b. at Cluaindroichead, County Cork, Ireland, in Villatte), a Parisian, a Catholic by birth who had 1839; d. 21 March, 1920. He entered the diocesan come to Canada to study for the priesthood. While college of Fermoy and from there went on to May- yet in the early stages of preparation he apostatized, nooth. He became Canon in 1906, after being engased chiefly owing to the influence of the apostate Chini- on parish work for many vears. He celebrated his quy, entered a Presbyterian seminary, and became golden jubilee in 1917 ana the National University pastor of a Presbyterian congregation in Wisconsin, conferred on him the degree of LL.D. two years later. Later coming under the influence of the apostate In the revival of the study of Gaelic which was wel- Hyacintbe Loyson, he went to Europe and was or- comed with so much enthusiasm by the Irish people, darned by the Old Catholic bishop, Herzog, in 1885. Canon O'Leary stands out a conspicuous figure. . Returning to Wisconsin he laid the foundation of the When after a bitter fight on the part of the English Old Catholic movement among certain communities Government to prevent the study of Irish in the of Belgians. Among other innovations Mass was schools, the difficulty presented itself of finding books said in French, but the Old Catholic doctrine was for the young generation to familiarize themselves retained. His first congregation later joined in a with the language, Canon O'Leary supplied the want, body the Episcopal church. Vilatte unsuccessfully His first book "S^dna" brought the language at a attempted a rapprochement with the Episcopalian bound into modem literature with a lightness m touch bishop of Fond du Lac and through the latter's influ- that has never been surpassed and that elevated it at ^?^^ seeking episcopal consecration at the hands once into a classic. Such is the opinion of Douglas of Herzo^, was denied nis request. He then turned Hyde. He followed this up by many more which to the Orient, and was consecrated bishop, according enabled thousands of pupils to prepare for public to the Latin Kite, by the schismatical archbishop of examinations. He translated the New Testament, the Ceylon. Goa, and India, F. X. Julius Alvarez, Imitation of Christ, and Aesop's Fables into Irish, and Msisted by two Jacobite Malabar bishops (1891). in his "Guaire , "Craos-deamhan," ^'Lushaidh He now attempted a more pretentious organization MacCon," and "Eisirt" re-told and modernised some in Wisconsin without any great success. He made a of the great stories of ancient Ireland, solemn recantation of his errors (2 Februar>', 1899)

and was outwardly reconciled to the Church, only to Olinda and Recife, Archdiocebb or (Ouk-

relapse within a short time, a decree of excommuni- denbib et Recifenbib; cf. C. E., XI — ^242c), in the

cation (13 June, 1900) l)eing issued against him and State cf Pemambuco, Brasil. The see is at present