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the retreat must be repeated; if the delay is less, the acres. At an annual expense of $100,000 the State- matter is left to the ordinaiy's discretion. Religious operated hatcheries liberate 80,000,000 youn^ salmon must niLke the retreat in their own house or another every year. The entire industry brings m about at the superior's discretion; seculars are to make it in $10,000,000 annually.

the seminary or in another pious or religious house The mining resources are few, coal to the amount of

designated by the bishop, who must be notified that 28,327 tons being mined in 1918. Manufacturing is

it was made, by the superior of the house, or if the slightly on the increase, the number of establishments

candidate is a religious by one of this higher superiors, in 1919 (2707) being 16.7 per cent greater than in

CeremonieH. — ^The directions of the ritual are to be 1914. There were 68,004 persons engaged in manu-

foUowed as heretofore in ordinations; little chan^ facture and earning for their services a total of

have been made in the Code. All those who are being $94,986,000. The capital invested was $499,982,000

pronioted to a major order must receive Holy Com- and the value of the products $366,783,000. For

munion at the ordination Mass. If a candid&te who communications, the State has 3214 miles of railways,

has already received any orders in an Oriental Rite is. The Dalles and Celilo Canal completed in 1915 opens

in virtue of an Apostolic indult, about to receive the Columbia and Snake Rivers to navigation for a

higher orders in the Latin Rite he must first receive length of 570 mjles from the ocean . The Columbia

in the latter Rite the orders which he did not receive River Highway, ore of the finest in the world, was

in the Oriental. Major orders may now be conferred opened in 1916. The State debt in 1920 was $19,-

also on any Sunday, or a feast of obligation, when 859,025; the assessed value of taxable property, as

there is a grave cause for doing so and minor orders equalized, was $990,435,472. The lumber industry is

can be given not merely on Sundays but also on feasts a larse source of revenue for Oregon, the output of

of double rite, in the morning only, without a special sawed lumber for 1918 being 2,700,000,000 feet,

indult. All customs contrary to the provisions just valued at $68,000,000. In 1913 a compulsory forest

mencioned regarding the time of ordination are repro- patrol law was enacted requiring the owners of forests

bated. Though ordinarily ordinations take place in to provide adec]uate protection, or to pay for the

the church, tor. sure and minor orders may oe con- protection fumish&d by the State. The air patrol

ferred in private oratories and major orders for just maintained by the War Department proved a valuable

cause in an episcopal seminary^ or religious oratory, adjunct to the system.

Finally, a record of the ordination must be preserved Religion. — According to the latest United States

in the local curial archives, and the local ordinary, or Census of R^eligious Denominations, the membership

higher superior of the candidate who is a religious and of all sects was 179,468. The largest were: Catholics

has been ordained with dimissorial letters, must send 49,728 or 27%; Methodist Episcopalians 27,866 or

notice of the ordination of all subdeacons to the rec- 15.5%; Presbyterians 16,672 or 9.3%: Baptists,

tors of their baptismal churches so that the fact can Northern Convention 15,635 or 8.7%; Disciples of

be recorded in the baptismal register. Christ 15,399, or 8.6%; Congregationalist 6373 or

3.6%; Protestant Episcopalians 5726 or 3.2%;

Oregon (of. C. E., XI-288c)— The area of the Jews 1315 or .7%. For further educational and re- State of Oregon is 96,669 square miles including ligious statistics, see Oregon City, Archdiocese of; 1092 of water surface. The population in 1920 was Baker City, Diocese of.

783,389, an increase of 16 per cent since 1910; the Education. — ^Education is compulsory for children

increase between 1900 and 1910 was 62 per cent. The between the ages of 9 and 15. All county school

average number of inhabitants to the square mile was districts having a school population of 2500 or more[

8.2. About half the population (49.9 per cent) was must maintain schools at least ei^t montiis in the

rural. The largest cities are Portland (258,288), year. In 1920 there were 2673 public schoob with

Salem (17,679), Eugene (10,593), Astoria (14,207). 7695 teachers and 148,412 enrolled pupils, 220 h^

Th3 whites numbered 769,146 (666,995 native, 102,- schools with 1163 teachers and 24,641 pupils, a public

151 foreiga bor i), the negroes, 2144, Indians, 4590, normal school with 30 teachers, and 230 pupils. The

Chiic^, 39090, Japanese, 4151 . Of the native whites, total expenditure on education in 1919 was $11,217,-

497,726 were of native parentage, 95,827 of foreiga 385. An irreducible fund of $7,109,689 has been

parentage, 73,442 of mixed parentage. The school secured by the sale of part of the school lands. The

attendance of all between the ages of 5 and 20 years Agricultural College has an instructing staff of 265

of age was 152,275 or 70.1 per cent. Among those of and a total attendance of 3623 students; the Uni-

ten years and over there were 9317 illiterates, or 1.5 versity of Oregon, 123 instructors and 1868 students,

per cent. Most of the foreign-born whites came orig- Washington's Birthday (22 February) is a half-holiday

nally from Canada (13,774), Germany (13,740), in the schools. Bible reading is neither permitted

Sweden (10,532), Norway (6955), and Russia (6979) . nor excluded. The State laws governing private and

Economic CoNDmoNs. — Oregon is prosperous as parochial schools are as follows: It shall be unlawful

an agricultural State. The number of farms in 1920 for any board of school directors, regents, or trustees,

(50,206)showsanincreaseof 10 .3 per cent since 1910. or for any teacher or other person teaching in the

The area of farm land is 13,542,318 acres, the value public or private schools, to cause to be tau^t or to

of farm property, $818,559,751; value of all farm teach any subject or subjects other than foreign

crops, $131,884,639; of live stock, $101,779,342. languages in the public or private schools in any

The principal crops were wheat, valued at $41,201,- language but English. All teachers in public and

480; oats, $7,939,637; barley, $2,215,065; hay, privateschoolsmust take the oath of allegiance. No

$41,835,706; fruits and nuts, $20,373,412; dairy money shall be drawn from the treasunr for the

products^ $17,651,409. Especially rich is the county benefit of any religious or theological institution

of Umatilla, whose wheat crop averages about 5,000,- (1-6). Property for educational, literary, scientific,

(XX) bushels annually, while the alfalfa lands, com- religious or charitable purposes may be exempted from

prisinjK about 30,000 acres, yield three crops a year, taxation (IX-1). Any teacher in a four^year high

totalhng 4 tons to the acre. Live stock is also an school must be a graduate of a standard colle^ or

extensive industry; there are in this county about hold a like certificate or State diploma. The State

66,000 sheep, with fleeces averagdne about 9 pounds superintendent shall visit all chartered schools and

each, and 33,000 cattle. The wool cfip was 13,118,479 shall secure statistical information relative to the

pounds, valued at $1,544,443. In 1920. 9154 farms number of students, teachers, value of property,

with an acreage of 986,162 were irrigated. Plars are libraries, salaries, courses of study,

are being made for the irrigation of about two million Recent Legislation and History. — In 1911 a