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auxiliary bishops: Rt. Rev. Benjamin-Octave A little later a question arose as to the status of the

Roland Gosselin, b. 17 Dec, 1870, named titular existing divisions of dioceses in countries like Aua-

Bishop of Mosynopolis and auxiliarv of Cardinal tralia, which were still under the Ck)ngregation of

Amette 12 May, 1919, preconized 3 July, consecrated Propaganda. On 9 December, 1920, the Holy See

12 August following, vicar capitular 1 Sept., 1920, replied: (1) that it was not necessary to divide the

auxiliary of Cardinal Dubois 30 Nov., 1920; Rt. diocese of missionary countries into parishes at all:

Rev. Henri-Marie-Alfred Baudrillart, b. 6 Jan., the matter will evidently be left to the discretion of

1859, rector of the Catholic Institue, named titular ordinary, just as vicars and prefects ApostoUc need

Bishop of Himeria 29 July, 1921, and consecrated not diviae their territory except where it can be done

29 October following: Rt. Rev. Emmanuel Chaptal, conveniently; (2) that where the diocese had been al-

b. 1861, ordained 1897, pastor of Notre Dame du ready divided as prescribed in canon 216 the terri*-

Travail de Plaisance, 1910, appointed auxiliary tories came under the name of parishes, but that the

bishop 1922, with jurisdiction over the Russians and special regulations for quasi-parishes also apphed to

other Slavs resident in Paris. The continual develop- tnem. The chief significance of this is that while

ment in Catholic work, as well as the increase in the these territories are parishes and their rectors parish

number of parishes during the past fifteen vears has priests, yet the latter are not obliged to offer mass

made necessary this collaboration in the ecclesiastical for their flocks, except on eleven important feasts,

administration of Paris, and the recent appointment whereas ordinary parish priests must do so every

of Abb4 Chaptal provided for the care of the large Sundav and holiday (including suppressed feasts),

influx of foreisn population, especially Russians, since Without a special Apostolic indult special parishes

the Balkan Wars and the Russian Revolution. cannot be created in the same town or territory for

According to the report of the diocesan congress of people of different nationality or different speech, nor

1920, the archdiocese comprises 79 parishes within can family or personal parishes be created; if, now-

the city, 12 chapels of ease and 30 public chapels, and ever, any such are now extant the bishop must make

in the suburbs 94 parishes with 27 chapels of ease, no change without consulting the Holy See. There is

The churches are inisufficient in number to accommo- nothing in this legislation to prevent the opening of

date the faithful, and to remedy this insufficiency the subsidiary churches on national or linguistic lines,

chapels of ease have been created. Since 1906 43 new Once a parish has become entitled officially to an irre-

places of worship have been established within the movable rector, a removable rector cannnot be ap-

diocese; 16 churches and 29 chapels. Five churches pointed without leave of the Holy See. If the rector

are now under construction. Statistics for 1918 give had hitherto been removable, he may be declared

a population for the archdiocese of 4,154,042. In irremovable by the bishop — but not by a vicar cap-

1914 the new Proper for Paris was approved. Now itular — with the advice of the cathedral chapter,

resident within the archdiocese are the Brothers of Ordinarily newly-erected parishes should have irr&-

the Christian Schools, Lazarists^ African Missionaries movable rectors, but circumstances may arise justi-

of Lyons, Foreign Missionaries of Paris, White fying the appointment of a removable rector, though

Fathers, Holy Ghost Fathers, Hospitallers of St. John in this case the bishop must first consult the chapter,

of God, Sulpicians, and numerous religious congrega- Every parish is suoject to a tax for the diocesan

tions of women. seminary; it should have its confraternities of the

«_^i./r/-i-n vT^/Y«\ T -jj- BlessedSacramentandof Christian doctrine, and nor-

o,i^ r u ^* XI-499C)— It IS provided m mally a special cemetery, though a« frequently hap-

canon 216 of the Code that the temtory of every pens the ordinary may find it more convenient to have

diocese should be divided into parishes, that is tern- a common cemetery, especially in cities and towns,

torial units, each with its own special church, special When a just canonical cause arises a bishop may di-

congregation and special permanent pastor having vide, unite or suppress parishes, even without the

wucu i.uau 1.UUJU up uuiic vuuvcuicuwjr , aiivi wiw* »i*- tAcre IS HO propcr Canonical cause, e.g., tne oimcuity vantage to the spu-itual welfare of the people, m which of many parishioners in reaching the church, too case if a special pastor was appointed the territory great an increase or decrease in the number of parish- becomes a qiiasi-parish, and the pastor at once ac- loners, the action of the bishop would be invahd; as a qxures special rights and is subject to special obliga- safeguaitl he must always consult, though he need tions. The importance of this may be seen m the fact not follow the advice of, the cathedral chapter, and that m the English-speakmg worid generally there those interested, such as the rectors; while there is were no parishes and no parish priests strictly so- always the right of appeal against the bishop's deci- called, but only permanent or removable rectors, gion to the Holy See, though until the Holy See acts The question haying been raised wheUier or not th^ it remains in force. When a parish has been divided rectorial territories, m countries like England and the the bishop must assign a proper source of revenue to United States, which had been released by the con- the newly erected vicariate or parish, which may be stitution "Sapienti Consilio" (1908) from the tutelage taken from the mother church, provided the latter is of the Congregation of Propaganda, had on the not impoverished thereby; the new church if thus en- promulgation of the Code become ipso facto parishes, dowed is bound to pay honor to the mother church in the Sacred Congregation of the Consistory replied in a way prescribed by the ordinary, but the filial church the negative (1 August, 1919). To constitute a parish jg entitled to its own baptismal font. If the divided a decree of the ordinary determining its boundaries, parish belonged to religious or was subject to a right the seat of the parish, tne endowment for divine wor- of patronage the new or filial parish is independent of ship and the support of the clergy, was declared neces- the religious or the patron, sary; furthermore, it was not necessary to make the

rector irremovable, indeed for a just cause he might Parma, Diocese of (Parmensis; cf. C. E., XI —

be expressly proclaimed removable in the decree of 505a), in the Province of Parma, Italy ^ dependent

erection. Finally, if owing to the small number of the directly on the Holy See. The prsent bishop is Rt,

faithful or the scanty resources available it was un- Rev. Guido Maria Conforti, b. 1865, elected Arch-

be made

ii^, remaining in depends _

they could be erected into parish church«ii. the See in the same year upon the death of Bishop