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IIdtjcation.— School attendance is compulsory Brethren 73,989; all others 483,125. The value

for all between the ages of 8 and 14 for tne full of church property is $208,132,581, being 2 per cent

term; in less populated districts (less than 5000) it of the value of all property in the State, which is

may be reduced to 70 per cent of the term for children $11,473,620,306. Of the entire population in 1916,

under 12 years of age. The State Board of Education, 55 per cent professed no religion, as against 67.2 per

created by the Act of 18 May, 1911, consists of six cent in 1900. For Catholic statistics see Philadel-

members, appointed by the Governor for six jrears. phia, Archdiocese of, and its suffragans. The Superintendent of Public Instruction, appointed Recent Legislation and History. — In 1913 a

bv the Governor for four years, is president and Public Utilities Act did away with the railway com-

"chief executive officer of the State Board of Educa- mission. State-wide primaries were introduced in the*

tion. The Bureau of Vocational Education, created same year: electrocution was substituted for hanging;

in 1915 to supersede the Vocational Educational and a mothers' pension bill was enacted. Night work

Division, authorized in 1913. consists of two divisions, for children was prohibited in 1915. This had an

Agricultural and Industrial. The Bureau of Pro- important bearing on the industrial situation of

fessional Education created in 1911 is under the State Pennsylvania, as more children were employed in

Department of Public Instruction. In 1911 was also Pennsylvania than in any other state of the Union,

created the Bureau of Medical Instruction and A Workmen 'sConipensation Act was provided for and

Licensure of the Department of Public Instruction, a Prison Labor Commission created. In 1917 a

A State Council of Education was established in direct inheritance law was passed. In the last ten

1921. The laws governing private and parochial years much has been done to reform the laws of

schools are as follows: The register of all public. Pennsylvania. The election law has been changed

private, parochial, Sunday and other schools shall but the ballot laws are yet far from perfect. The

exhibit the names and residence of all children Federal Suffrage amendment was ratificKl on 24 June,

and persons excluded therefrom or readmitted there- 1919; the Pronibition Act on 25 .Febnuu*y, 1919. to ... ; and such register shall be open at all During the European War Pennsylvania furnished

times to the inspection of city, borough, township to the united States Army 297,891 men (7.93 per

authorities and the State Department of Health and cent). The Pennsylvania members of the national

their respective officers ana agents. Every child Kuard were incorporated into the 28th Division at

between the ages of 8 and 16 is required to attend a Camp Hancock, Georgia; those of the national army

. day school in which the common English branches into the 79th Division at Camp Meade, Maryland or

are taught in the English language. All teachers in with the 80th Division at Camp Lee, Vir^ia. The

public and private schools, shall take the oath of al- summary of casualties of the Pennsylvania members

legiance. No appropriation shall be made to any of the American Expeditionary Force is as follows:

charitable or educational institution not under the deceased, 291 officers, 7607 men; prisoners, 37

absolute control of the Commonwealth. Private officers, 854 men; wounded, 810 officers, 2£^,442 men.

schools must report regarding attendance. Attendance An artillery camp was established at Tobyhanna,

registers shall always be open to public authorities. Pennsylvania: a tank cantonment at Gettysburg,

No teacher J while teaching in a public school, shall and an ambulance camp at Allentown. wear a religious garb. In the year ending July, 1919, ^ , „ , ^ ^ ^ ^^^ ^^^ ^

there were in the State 15,185 school-houses, 42,354 ^ Penrion, Ecclesiastical (cf. C. E., XI— 645c).—

schools, 937 high schools, 58,073 boys and 72,197 A local ordinary when confemng a benefice may for

girls in the high schools, also 43,972 teachers (6233 a just cause, which is to be announced m the act of

male and 37,139 female). The number of pupils collation, subject a benefice to a temporary pension

was 1,583,187; the total educational expenditure lasting dunng the lifetime of the beneficiary, who

$75,343,160. The average monthly salary of the must, however, be left a smtable mcome. Parochial

male teacher is $91.82; of the female teachers $62.45. benefices may not be subjected to pensions, except in

School districte are required to provide special edu- ^ avor of the parish priest or vicar of the same parish on

cation in special classes in the public schools for chil- retiring from office: this pension must not exceed one-

dren who are mentally or physically handicapped, third of the parish revenues after deducting expenses

TTie schools are being consohdated as far as possible and uncertain income. If a parish priest retires

in remote districts to increase their educational voluntarily at the request of the ordinary he should

efficiency. Bible reading is obligatory in the public receive a larger pension than if he had to be removed,

schools. Among the recent admtions to the State If an ecclesiastic is raised to the cardinalate he loses

institutions are: the New Western Penitentiary of his pension ipso facto unless the Holy See provides

Pennsylvania, founded in Centre County, in 1915, otherwise in a special case.

where all the electrocutions now take place; to this Pentecostal Holiness Ohurch. See New Thought. place, which is known as the Pennsylvania State «*»«^v«-w **v**«w» w**«*w*. «^x^j:.»t xxiv^u^>nx.

Prison, the inmates of the Eastern and Western State Peoria, Diocese of (Peorensis; cf. C. E., XI

Penitentiaries were transferred; the State lAdustrial — 66 Id), in the State of Illinois, comprises an area

Home for the care of criminal women between sixteen of 18,554 square miles, and has a Catholic population

and thirty years of age was established at Munc^r in of 116,553, mostly American bom. The present

1913; the Western Hospital for the Insane at Blairs- bishop, Rt. Rev. Edmund M. Dunne, D.D., who

ville in 1915; the State Village for Feeble-Minded has filled the see since 1909, is assisted by^an auxiliary

Men near Glen Iron, Union County; State Hospital bishop, Rt. Rev. Peter J. O'Reily, D|.D^ titular

at Coaldale (originally a private hospital); and a Bishop of Lebedos. On 25 August, 1916, Kt. Rev.

State School for the Deaf m Scranton (originally a John Lancaster Spalding (9. v.). first Bishop of

private institution). Peoria, died in that city. Bishop Spalding had been

Reuqion.— Of the entire population of Pennsyl- forced by illness to resi^ his see in 19GNS, but he

vania in 1916 (8,522,017) 4,114,527, or 45 per cent, continued his residence m Peoria as Arehbishop of

were church members: 2,283,995 Protestants and Scythopolis, to which title he was raised in 1909. 1,830.532 Catholics. The latest census of Catholics The present (1921) statistics of this diocese show

()920) for the entire State was 1,755,194. TheProtes- 159 parishes, 238 churehes, 80 missions, 20 mission

tant denominations for 1916 were dfivided as follows: stations, 5 monasteries for men and 1 for women, 1

Methodists 427,509; Lutherans 371,674; United Pres- abbey for men, 1 convent for women and 26 for men,

byterians 73,405; Reformed 209,256; Baptists 193,262: 178 secular priests and 47 regular, 10 lay brothers,

Presbyterians 332,088; Episcopalians 118,687; United 1357 nuns and 20 seminarians. The various edu-