occupied Baku, but at the end of the war the British liberty, although the Catholic religion is the religion
occupied the southeast and west portions of Persia, of the state. In 1919 £22,158 were voted for public
By tne terms of the armistice imposed on Turkev by worship, and £660 for missions. For religious
the western powers, Persia was to be evacuated by statistics see Lima, Archdiocese of, and its suf-
the Turkish troops. On 19 September, 1919, the fragans: Cajamarca, Chacapoyas, Cuzco, Ayacucho,
secret treaty between Great Britain and Persia, con- HiuUiuco, Huaraz, runo, Trujillo.
eluded on 9 August, was made public. By its terms Education. — Althougn education is by law com-
Great Britain made a 20 year loan of £2,000,000 at pulsory^ the law is not enforced. In 1919 there were
7 per cent which was to have precedence over all 3036 primary schools with 4351 teachers and 181,211 other debts of Persia except a former British loan of pupils. In 1918 there were 27 government schools £1,250.000 made in 1911. As a guarantee Persia with 6231 pupils and 364 teachers. The pupils pay pledged her custom receipts. Great Britain also a moderate fee in high schools maintained by the agreed to supply at Persian expense, expert advisers, government. There are universities at Lima (Uni- military officers, munitions, and all necessary mili- versidad de San Marcos, founded in 1551) at Are- tary equipment, and to make no chaise to Persia quipa, Cuzco, and Trujillo.
for troops sent to the aid of Persia durmg the war. Economics. — ^The cotton area in 1918 was 140,000
Persia, on the other hand, agreed not to demand in- acres and the crop 45,200,000 pounds. Rice is
demnity for damage caused nv them. This treaty grown on 70,000 acres, and the exports of this
was objected to by the United. States, as it violated product in 1918 was valued at $813,301. The total
the principles of the League of Nations. The agree- mineral output of the country was in 1919 valued at
ment was denoimced on 27 February, 1921, by the $40,100,000. Hides to the value of $3,038,803 were
Prime Minister, Seyed-Ziaed-Din. exported in 1919. The foreign trade of Peru in
1919 was worth $190,041,853; exports, $130,731,191;
Perth, Archdiocese of (Perthenbis; cf. C. E., imports, $59,310,662. The railway mileage in 1918
XI — 731c), in Western Australia, erected into a was 1893 miles. Of these, 1300 miles were operated
metropolitan see 28 August, 1913. The first and by the Peruvian Corporation; the rest being owned
present archbishop is Most Rev. Patrick Joseph by the government.
Clune, C. SS. R., b. at Killaloe, Ireland, 6 Jan., Finance. — ^The revenue of the republic in 1919*
1864, consecrated m Perth 17 March, 1911, succeed- was £6,154,171; the expenditure £5,799,981. The
ing Bishop Gibnev, resigned, became archbishop 28 total debt of Peru on 30 June, 1920, amounted to
August, 1913. The Catholic population is 39,500. £6,088,740, of which the internal debt amounted to
composed to a large degree of Irish. English, ana £3^9,216.
Maltese immigrants. The religious orders established Defence. — Military service in Peru is compulsory
in the diocese are: Oblates of Mary Immaculate', 2 and universal. The peace establishment of the
houses, 11 members; Redemptorists, 1 monastery, army is 11,000; the 176 state-aided Rifle Clubs
8 members; Irish Christian Brothers, 4 houses, 22 muster about 16,000 marksmen; the Civil Guard in members; Sisters of Mercv; 15 houses, 193 nuns; 1918 included 2771 officers and men. The Peruvian Sisters of St. Joseph of the Apparition, 7 houses, navy consists of six ships.
77 nuns; Sisters of St. John ot God, 4 houses, 68 Recent History. — The long-standing dispute over
nuns; Presentation Sisters, 3 houses, 25 nuns; Sisters Arica and Tacna has disturbed the peace of the
of St. Joseph of the Sacred Heart, 4 houses, 24 nuns; republic in recent years. On 25 November, 1918,
Loreto Nuns, 2 houses, 34 nuns. There are 2 monas- Chile and Peru severed relations and for a time
teries of men, 3 convents of men. 38 convents for there was grave danger of war, but the United States
women, 52 secular priests. 9 regular priests, 4 lay couiLselled a peaceful adjustment and war was
brothers, 471 Sisters. Educational institutions in- averted. The matter was submitted to the League
elude: 3 colleges for men, with 30 teachers, and 850 of Nations, but the League felt that it was not
students; 2 colleges for women, with an attendance of within their jurisdiction. In May, 1922, the dele-
164; 6 high schools; 53 primary schools, with an at- gates of the three countries most concerned in the
tendance of 7958; 4 industrial schools with 24 dispute — Chile, Bolivia, and Peru — assembled in
teachers, and 621 pupils; a total of 53 primary schools, Washington, U. S. A., to settle the quarrel. In
25 superior schools^ 9764 children in Catholic schools, Deceml^r, 1919, Peru adopted a new constitution,
325 professed religious, 64 novices, and 80 lay superseding that of 1860. The principal innova-
teachers. Charitable institutions total 9, containing tions in the document are: Religious toleration, com-
497 inmates under the care of 94 professed religious pulsory education, graduated income tax, guarantees
and 7 lay teachers; they include 2 homes. 1 Ma^- of personal security, compulsory arbitration of labor
dalene AJsylum, and 2 hospitals. None or these m- disputes, municipal autonomy, and the establish-
stitutions receive support from the government, ment of three regional legislatures to deal with local
The diocese comprises 32 parishes and 103 churches, matters. An official diocesan weekly called the "Western
Australia Record" is published. The Pioneer Total Perugia, Archdiocese of (Perusinensis; cf. C.
Abstinence Society is organized among the clergy., E., XI — 736a), in Central Italy, dependent directly
and lay associations include the C. Y. M. S., K. S. on the Holy See. The present archbishop is Most,
C, Hibernians, and Foresters. During the World Rev. Giovanni Beda Cardinale, O. S. B., b. 1869
War Rev. John Fahey, D. S. O., saw four years ser- Abbot of Praglia, consecrated Bishop of Civitavecchia
vice in Gallipoli, Egypt and France, where Rev. and Cometo 1907, promoted titular Archbishop of
Peter Hayes served for three years and Rev. Dean I^aodicea and apostolic delegate of Perugia 3 Feb..
Brennan served for five years. Rev. Patrick McBride 1910, transferred to Perugia 8 Nov., 1910, publishea
was on home service. 30 Nov., 1911, succeeding Archbishop Mattei
^ / i. ^ T-i xTT ^««jx 1 1. . « t^ Gentili, resigned. The Catholic population of the
Pera; (cf. C. E., XI--732d), republic, m South archdiocese is 100,900. There are: 199 parishes,
America, has an area of 722^1 square miles, and a 218 secular priests, 40 regular priests, 90 seminarians,
popiUation of about 5,000,000. The largest cities 150 Sisters, 371 churches and chapels, are Lima, with a population estimated in 1919 at
140,884; Callao, 34,346 (1915); Arequipa, 40,000; Pesaro, Diocese of (Pesaurensis; cf. C. E.,
Cuzco, 15,000. XI— 738d), suffragan of Urbino, Central Italy.
Religion. — ^The constitution guarantees religious The present bishop is Rt. Rev, Bonaventura Porta,