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PITTS 5g4 PltTd

school, 1 institute for deaf mutes, 1 home for infants of Holy Scripture, in keeping with the purpose of

and 6 hospitals. Leo XIII, by reorganizing the Biblical Commission.

When years of intense activity had impaired He ordered severe and solemn examinations for

Archbishop Canevin's health in the Spring of 1920, clerics who were seeking for degrees, and set apart a

he offered his resispiation to the Holy Father, who special establishment for the members of the Com-

finally yielded to nis wishes and on 26 November mission. On 24 May, 1911, he directed the Por-

1920, appointed him administrator of the diocese until tuguese clergy not to accept pensions from the Govem- his successor should be appointed and take possession, ment, and when the revolution with its attendant In recognition of the success of his administration the persecution broke out he replied to the challenge b^ Holy Father on 9 January 1921, appointed him arch- making the Patriarch of Lisbon a cardinal. His bishop of the titular See of Pelusium. Encyclical '^Lamentabili" of 1912 denounced the

Upon the resignation of the bishop the priests of the oppression of the Indians of Peru by the rubber diocese forwarded a petition to the Holy See begging merchants of that country and after a special agent that a diocesan priest be appointed to tne vacant see had been sent to investigate, he establshed a mission and in response Rev. Hugh C. Boyle. P. R. of St. for the Indians which he put in the hands of the Mary Mag^elene's Church, Homesteaa, Pa., was ap* Friars Minor. His abolition of the numberless in- pointed and consecrated by Bishop Canevin 28 June eflScient seminaries in Italy by establishing regional

1921 . He was bom in Cambria County. Pa. , 8 Octo- centres had been carried out with extreme vigor from ber 1873, educated at St. Vincent's dolle|;e and the the beginning of his i>ontificate even to the extent of seminary at Beatty, Pa., and ordained pnest 2 July deposing imwilling bishops. By the year 1913 the 1898, superintendent of the parochial schools of the great work was in large part achieved. His political diocese (19 March, 1909), ana appointed irremovable action in Italy was such that in the early part of his pastor of St. Mary Magdalene's Church, Homestead, rei^ he had induced 228 deputies to retrain from Pa. 26 November, 1916. legislation hostile to the Cnurch and especifidly

The religious communities of the dio<[;ese number to vote down the divorce bill. In 1914 he forbade the as follows: Redemptorists, 9 members; Benedictines, transference of cardinals from one see to another, 67; Passionist Fathers, 16; Brothers of Mary (Dayton, reformed the financial methods of the various Con- Ohio), 10; Capuchin Fathers, 33; Holy Ghost Fathers, gregations, sent back to their dioceses a large num- 30; Carmelite Fathers, 8; Italian Franciscan Fathers, ber of clerics who were spending an idle existence in 6. Total: 179 members. The religious communities Rome, and redistricted all the parishes of the citv. of women number: Sisters of Mercy, 394 members; Pius X was stricken with serious ilhiess the early Sisters of Notre Dame (mother-house, Baltimore) part of 1913, but he rallied. In the following year 50; Franciscan Sisters, 250: Sisters of St. Joseph, ne began to show signs of fatigue. He had an attack 266; Benedictine Nuns, 92; Ursuline Nuns, 24; Sisters of bronchitis on 19 August. 1914, which was alarming; of Charity, 331; Little Sistemof the Poor, 35; Sisters and on the following day ne breathed his last, of the Good Shepherd, 50; Sisters of Divine Provi- ^ --• « /* ti n i. «# «%i% ,«.r- dence, 264; Sisters of Nazareth (mother-house, Chi- ,%«".^' ?^^= ^^T^^^oS^^™!' h?^^/ 30, 1857, cago), 82; Third Order of St. Francis ,35; Sisters of *JS?^°' ^J^^" of about 8000 inhabitants northwest the Incarnate Word, 10; FeUcian Sisters (mother- ofMdan. He was the son of a silk weaver and the third house, Detroit), 70; Sisters of St. Agnes (mother- of a family of six. He was taught as a child by a devoted house, Fond-du-Lac, Wisconsin); Passionist Nuns, ^^^ P"®^* named Volonteri, who taught^class in his 25; Immaculate Heart Nuns (mother-house. Scran- ?^ ^9^ ^^F forty-three years. 'To AchiUe he gave ton), 46; Bemardine Sisters, 20; Sisters of Sts. Cyril "i^f^sive tiuimng and sent him well eqmpped to the and Methodius, 7; Sisters of the Divine Redeemer, 4; Milan Seminary^ where he spent three years, going Holy Ghost Nuns, 22; Sisters of the Blessed Trinity. i^lS"*? to the Gregorian Umversity m Rome. In


Kunegunda, 5; Total: 2216.' ' *^« spent twenty years of his life. In 1907 he waa


churches with resident priests, 329; missions, 55; , -„ ^. „, , j au -x- /e ^^^.

chapels, 80; stations, 7; parochial schools, 208, with when Father Ehrle resigned that office, m 1914,

1371 teachers and 71,769 pupils; seminaries of re- without, however, breaking his connection with the

ligious orders 3; diocesan seminarians, 99; diocesan Library at Milan. His position in both places waa

ecclesiastical students, 96; university, 1; with 81 pro- ^ery difficult, for racial hatred was acute at that time

fessors and 1362 students; colleges for women, 1; with between Germans and Itahans and the anti-clerical

18 teachera and 100 students; parochial high schools, ^^^ was intense, but his admirable tact smoothed

35; private high schools, 11; total: 46 with an attend- away every obstacle. In 1918 he was seat as Apos-

ance of 2102; religious normal training schools, 9 with ^^<^ VmUir to Poland, although he had no previous

335 students; industrial school, 1 wit^ 46 pupUs; day expenence in diplomacy, except what he had gatherwi

nurseries, 3; orphan asylums, 5; foundling asylums, 2; ^^1*^8 o*°^^i "^i^ %^\^^PV^^ ^^l^ * «• *^/ f'?

protectory for boys, 1; school for deaf mutes/ 1 »n 1893 with MD-.RadimTedeschi. His Polish

homes for aged poor, 3; homes of Good Shepherd, 2; assignment coincided with the composition of the

homes for working girls, 2; temporary homes for Brest-Litovsk Treaty by the Germans, who were in

children, 3; temporary home for women, 1; hospitals occupation of Poland at that time, and had placed

8; Catholic population about 665,000, ^^^?^ ^^^^^ the control of a councd of regente whom

the Poles regarded as instruments of German donuna-

Plus X (cf . C. E., XII— 137 for the earlier part of tion. He was in Poland practically throughout the

his pontificate). — On 1 November, 1911, Pius X period of its political resurrection, and his duties

issued a decree which made the new Breviary obliga- Drought him into relation with the former Russian

tory after 23 October, 1917. All the bishops and provinces along the eastern Polish frontier. He had

religious orders were ordered to modify their proper to establish new dioceses where German bishops in

Offices so as to brin^ them as much as possible in Poland had resigned, and others in those parts which

touch with the Breviary of the Univers^ Church, had formerly pelonged to Russia. Immediately

In the same year he gave a new impulse to the study after the Armistice of 1918 he had to deal with the