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question of the status of church properties in both territory may be called by the papal lesate, in accord- sections. To solve it he created, a commission of ance with liis instructions, and are to nave a delibcr- bishops which was reco^ized by the Polish Govern- ative vote, unless the contrary was expressly provided ment, and at the same time he succeeded in obtaining when they were summoned to attend. Those having from the Polish Constitutent Assembly a resolution a deliberative vote must, if they are prevented from that no law would be enacted about the properties attending, send a deputy who, as such, has only a without consulting the Hol^ See. On 6 June, 1919, consultive vote, since Poland had Income an independent nation, Mgr. Codex juris canonid, can. 282.

Ratti was made Papal Nuncio. ^ ^ « 

His work in these trying circumstances brought Plockor Plotsk, Diocese of, Plocensis (cf. C.E.,

into evidence his firmness, coura^ and evenness of XII — 166d), in Poland, dependent of Warsaw. Rt.

temper. His courage was especially shown at the Rev. Anthony Nowowiejski, b. at Lubien. diocese

time of the Bolshevist invasion in Jiily, 1920. Most of Sandomierz, 11 February, 1858, ordained 10 July,

of the officials fledjhe remained at his post. Later 1881, was elected bishop of Plock 12 June, 1908,

he was appointed High Ecclesiastical Commissioner and consecrated at Petrograd 6 December following

for the plebiscite in Upper Silesia; an appointment by Bishop Wnukoski, his predecessor, who was pro-

which met with the approval of the Polish, German moted. Rt. Rev. Adolph Peter Szelazek, b. at

and InteraUied Commissioners. While serving on Stoczek, diocese of Podlachie, 1 July, 1865, ordained

the Commission he was active in securing the libera- in 1888, was elected titular bishop of Barca and

tion of the prisoners detained in their homes by the auxiliary to Plock 29 July, 1918.

Bolsheviki, and also in releasing such distinguished From 1915 to 1918 the diocese was occupied by

Ssrsonages as the Archbishop of Mohileff and the the German army, and in 1920 it was laid waste by

ishop of Minsk. He was distributing food mean- the invading Bolsheviki ; four priests were butch-

■" * -"'* ^^--^ -»^-»-> !--•-- J » «. , . indignities and even

chaplains in the . _ . . _ w ^ The laymen of promotion to the Archbishopric of Lepanto and he was the diocese serving in the army fought with great consecrated on 28 October, 1919. m the Cathedral valor, especially in opposing the Bolsheviki. Chari- of Warsaw, in the presence of the officials of the table organizations were formed for the care of the Polish Government, the members of the Constitutent sick and wounded, the destitute and the orphaned. Assembly and the episcopacy of Poland. On 13 The two-hundredth anniversaiy of the founding of June, 1921, he was made Archbishop of Milan and the diocesan seminary was celebrated in 1910 and created cardinal. Even the anticlericals and Social- with apostohc concurrence the graduate alumni ists of Milan were jubilant over his appointment, were awarded the academic de^ee of Doctor of notwithstanding that it was he who had changed Theology with certain reservations. Among the Musioli Facismo from an extreme Socialist into a recently deceased of note are: Rev. Alexander patriot and supporter of the House of Savoy. He was Zaremba, cathedral canon, domestic prelate, pro- elected Pope on 6 February, 1922, and his accession fessor of Holy Scripture in the diocesan seminary, hailed with an ahnost universal acclaim. editor of the periodical "Encyklopedia Koscrelna," _, , ^ .__ * i^ T^ <iiGd in 1907, aged 50 years; Rev. Casimir Welon- Plasencia, piocESB of (Placentina: cf. C. E., ski, cathedral prelate, rector of the diocesan semi- XII--1^7d),mtoeProvmceofCacere8,Spam,8uffra- nary, afterwards became Fr. Justinus, prior-general Kan of Toledo. The presMit bishop is Rt. Rev. Ange^^^ of the order of Piarists in Czestochowa, died in Regueras y I>p^z,b. 1870, elected 26March, 1915, 1915, aged 82 years; Rev. Brenislaua Marjanski, consecrated 14 September following. The area of the canon professor at the seminary, contributor to diocMeis4m square nules and the Catholic pa^^ and ediW of the weekly "Mazar," died in 1912, tion is 300,000. There^are 174 parishes divided into aged 49 years; Rev. Anthony Brylusynski, domes- 16 archipresbyterates, 322 priests, 175 churches, 147 tic prelate, professor at the seminary, pastor, popu- chapels, 37 conventa with 49 members of religious jar author, died in 1912, aged 70 years; Rev. Adam orders of men and 355 bisters. Maciejowski, professor at the seminary, gifted

Plater, Charles Dominic, author, b. at Mootlake, ^^^^ ^^ author died in 1919, aged 46.

England, in 1875; d. at Malta on 21 January, 192l! The diocese is divided into 12 deaneries and has

After finishing his studies at Stonyhurst, he became a a Catholic population of 824^31 Poles attended by

Jesuit 7 Sept., 1894, and during his scholasticate ^75 secular and 3 regular priests and 1 lay brother,

went to Oxforci where he received a degree of M.A. There are 252 parishes and churches with 64 de-

in 1907, giving much of his time at this period of his Pendent churches; 1 monastery for men and 1 for

life to the study of industrial economics. After his women; 1 convent for men and 8 for women; 1

ordination he was made professor of Psychology at semmaiy, and 1 lyceum erected m 1915 for stu-

St. Mary's Hall, and in 1916, he was sent as rector ^eote of philosophy and theology with a combined

to the Jesuit House at Oxford, Campion Hall. There ^^^al of 18 professors and 118 students; 27 normal

he set to work agam at his economics, but his health schools with 280 teachere and 10,000 students; 6

Save way and he was sent to Ireland and then to elementary schools with 35 teachers and 600 pupils;

ialta to recuperate. In the latter place he began 5 *°<*"^™ schools with 25 teachers and 700 stu-

to give lectures on his favorite topic, but overtaxed dents; 5 homes; 6 asylums; 8 orphanages; 6 hospi-

his strength and died there. <^als; 3 refuges; 10 settlement houses; 25 day nurs- eries. The Government contributes as best it can

Plenary OonncUs. — ^Under the Code a plenary to the support of the normal schools conducted in

council is convoked and presided oyer bv the papal the Polish language, which have been recently

legate under the Pope's orders. It is to be attended opened in various cities and towns of the diocese,

by the archbishops, residential bishops, who, how- The clergy have an association for spiritual welfare

ever, may send their coadjutors or auxiliaries to repre- called "Unio Apostolica." and one /or intellectual

sent them, by Apostolic administrators of dioceses, advancement, "Unitas Plocka." In almost every

abbots or prelates nullius, vicars Apostolic, prefects parish there are one or more religious associations

Apostolic and vicars capitular, all of whom have a for the laity. One Catholic daily called "Kurjer

deliberative vote; titular bishops residing within the Plocki," 1 weekly, and 3 periodicals are published.