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POOaiO 587 POLAND

deported to Loniza, where he died on 15 January PoUe, Joseph, theologian, b. at Niederspay, near following. From that date until 1918 the diocese Coblentz, Germany, on 19 March, 1852: d. at Breslav, has been ruled by the Bishop of Lublin as adminis- on 21 Februaiy. 1911. He studied at Trier, graduat- trator Apostolic. When the Russian schismatics ing in 1871 and the following year proceeded to the were thus for over forty years endeavoring to crush Gregorian University at Rome, where he won doc- out Catholicism, they confiscated many Catholic torates in philosophy and theology, and studied churches, suppressed parishes, and forbade the astronomy under Father Secchi, whose life he wrote building of new or the repairing of old churches. For in later days. He was ordained in 1887, and sub- instance, in the civil district of Biala, between 1874 sequently taught theology at Baar in Switzerland, and and 1900, out of eleven parishes, churches^ ten were Leeds, England; and philosophy at Fulda, 1885-89, suppressed and one was allowed to be built m Juczna, in whichyear he was called to the chair of apologetics where the Schismatics had confiscated the mag- in the Catholic University of America, which he nificent church of Our Lady of Kod^n. In 1905, filled with distinction for five years, when he re- when the persecution was relaxed, almost 200,000 signed and retuminir to Germany occupied the chair of the Greek Schismatics returned to the true fold, of dogmatic theology in Manster, Westphalia, some new churches being built and a fey^ of the Three years later he was called to the same post in suppressed parishes reviv^. the University of Breslau, where in 1915-1916 he When Russia fell in the European War, the served as rector magnificus. In 1913 he had been Schismatics took to flight, and on the restoration made a domestic prelate of the Pope. Pohle's of Poland, hope sprang up again in the hearts of the writings are highly esteemed for their depth of thought faithful. The diocese was restored and Mgr. Henry and accuracy of doctrines. His chef d'aitvre is a Przezdziecki, formerly vicar general of Warsaw, was "Lehrbuch der Dogmatik," the fruit of his lectures on elected bishop of Podlasie 24 September, 1918, sue- dogmatic theology, which was translated into Eng- ceeding Bishop Sz3rmanski, who had died in 1868. lish (12 Vols.) by Dr. Arthur Preuss of St. Louis, He was bom on 17 February, 1873; ordained on editor of the "Catholic Fortnightly Review" (St. 22 December, 1895, preconized on 24 September, Louis). Among his other works are a biography 1918, and consecrated at Warsaw on 17 November, of Angelo Secchi (2nd ed., 1904); two theological

1918. At present he resides at Siedlce, where the monographs: De providontia divino" and "De diocesan curia is located. The ecclesiastical court, conceptu creationis divinse"; a popular introduction however, is being held at Luk6w, until proper to astronomy, "Die StemenweltenundihreBewohner" quarters have been prepared at Siedlce. The aio- (6th ed., 1910). In addition he was for several vears cesan seminary of Benedict XV in Jan6w was re- editor of the 'Thilosophisches Jahrbuch" of the stored on 8 October, 1919, and has 7 professors Gdrres Society, and contributed numerous articles and 50 seminarians, of whom 19 are studying theology to the *'Kirchenlexikon," the "Kirchliches Handlexi- and 31 philosophy; in addition 2 seminarians are kon,'/ the Catholic Enctclopedia, the Historich studying at the Warsaw University and 3 at the Uni- politischer Blatter," and other reviews.

versity of Lublin. The cathedral chapter comprises

4 prelates or dignities and 8 canons. At present the Poitiers, Diocese op (Pictavbnsis; cf. C. E.

first dignity or dean is Mgr. Ceslaus Sokotowski, XII — 178d), in the department of Vienne, France,

coadjutor to Mgr. Przezdziecki, and titular Bishop suffragan of Bordeaux. In 1918 Mgr. Humbrecht,

of Pentacomia. He was bom at Warsaw on 9 July, Bishop of Poitiers, was promoted to the Archdiocese

1877, and nominated to his titular see on 4 October, of Besangon, and was succeeded in Poitieis bv Mg;r.

1919. He is also rector of the seminary and vicar de Durfort^ actual bishop. Bom at Montfermeil.

general of the diocese. The progress of the Church diocese of Versailles, 12 July, 1863, he was ordained uring the last three years may be seen in the increase in 1887, made prelate of the Holy See in 1899, and of the niunber of parish churches to 174, with 291 Piothonotary Apostolic five years later. In Febm- churches and chapels. There is a shortage of priests, &ry, 1911 , he was appointed Bishop of Langres and however, for though there are 225 tJiey are insufiicient consecrated the following May, remaining there until to cope with all the work of the diocese with its 644,318 he was transferred to his present see. Mgr. Hum- Catholics. They are assisted by 3 Pauline Fathers, brecht became Bishop of Poitiers in 1911, succeeding 1 priest of the Immaculate Conception, 3 Salesians Mgr. Pelge who died 31 May of that year. On (2 priests) and 3 Resurrectionists. There are 19 1 March, 1912, the Cathedral of Poitiers was made Sisters of the Inmiaculate Conception with 1 house, a basilica. An important event in the diocese was 8 Franciscan Sisters of the Family of Mary, 2 houses; the centenary celebration of the birth of Cardinal 3 Felician Sisters (Franciscan Tertiaries of St. Felix). Pie, 1915. During the World War 280 priests and 1 house; 6 Little Servfmts of the Most Sacred 130 seminarians from the diocese of Poitiers were Heart of Jesus, 1 orphanage and 1 hospital, 19 mobilized, 13 of the former and 34 of the latter Vincentian Sisters of Charity. 4 hospitals, 1 orphan- died, two received the MidaiOsMilitaM, 73 the Croix age; in all there are in the diocese 3 homes for the ^ Ouerre, and 2 were proposed for the Legion of aged and destitute; 5 orphanages; 6 day nurseries; ^^^^- .

and 7 infirmaries. The diocese has clerical co-operative . The diocese compnsw the departments ofVienne,

associations caUed "Unitis Viribus" in Siedlce; and jn which^er« were332,|76 Cathohra m 1920 (Poi>

a diocesan buUetin or review, "WiadomoSc Diecezalne t^?k^7'^n\hla^^^^ "S;"!^^ *^®T T^

Podla/ikie " 667fiZ7, In the same year the diocese counted 69

parishes, 574 succursals and 97 vicarages formeily

« ^ ««-x X T^ /** . supported by the State.

Peggie BClrtete, Diocese of (Mandelenbis; cf.

C. E., XII— 178c), in Central Italy, dependent . Poland (cf. C. E., XII— 181c), Republic op, an

directly on the Holy See. The present bishop is independent state since 9 November, 1918. In

Rt. Rev. Luigi Ferretti, b. 1862, elected 1917, ^^^^ »* *^® beginning of the World War, the Poles

consecrated 1918, succeeding Bishop Nirra, deceased. ^^^ P^TT* *"^^P«^<l®j^« by the Russian Grand

The Catholic ^pulation is 35,000. There are: Hl^L^^<^^^' Commander-m-Chief of the Russian

oiT • u AR l)r 1 :««♦- u I 1 - • * to annies. Similar promises were made several times

36 parishes, f secular pnests 8 re^lar priests, 12 during the couree of the war by the Central Powers,

semmarians, 5 Brothers, 40 bisters, 113 churches and the rulers of which even went so far, in 1916, as tc»

chapels. sign a decree to that effect, and to notify the Holy