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at Aiz-la-Chapelle. She started her wcrk 2 February. New Orleans, La.; Evansville, Ind.: Boston, Mass.;

1844, in her native town and remained at the head Bordentown, N. J.; Philadelphia, Pa.; New York,

of the congregation till her death, 8 May, 1804. She N. Y.; Philips, Wis.; and Victoria, B. C. According

was followed in office by Mother Innooentia (Elizar to the census of the Poor Clares, taken in 1021, the

beth Brown), b. 13 August, 1840, at Landstuhl, following is the present status of the order: Italy,

Rheinpfalz, entered the congregation on 12 June, houses 132, members 2022* Corsica, h. 1, m. 27; Pal-

1855, was elected superior general on 2 July, 1894. estine, h. 3, m. 54: Prussia, h. 10, m. 237; Bavaria,

died 25 February, 1900. The third superior general h. 3, m. 104; Holland, h. 4, m. 75; Belgiimi, h. 30,

is Mother Franziska Chantal (Antonie Happ) , b. 12 m. 1040; Ireland, h. 0, m. 168; Eneland, h. 14, m.

June, 1854, at Solingen. She entered the congrega- 327; France, h. 2S, m. 747; Spain, n. 238, m. 4480;

tion 20 December, 1880, was elected superior general Peru. h. 11, m. 108; Coltmibia, h. 10, m. 150; Ecua-

8 May, 1000, and re-elected 2 July, 1006, and 2 July, dor, h. 5, m. 124: Bolivia, h. 3, m. 65; Argentina,

1012; the election due 2 July, 1018, was, with special h. 1, m. 20; Brazil, h. 5, m. 106; Mexico, h. 1, m. 46;

permission of the Holy See, postponed to the same Canada, h. 1, m. 34; United States, h. 12, m. 231;

date, 1020. A decree of the Holy See which, according total, h. 581, m. 10045.

to the new Code of Canon Law, would have rendered .^^ „ _ _ .. _ _ _. . ^ , , ^ t^

a further re-election impossible or invaUd, had not v^^Lt^?^^^,^?*®'" ^^t, .^^^- ^* ^r

yet reached Bishop ScE^en of Roermond who, XII--254c).--^mce 1011, many noteble improvements

according to the mle, presided at the act. The ^^ve been made m vanous mstitutions conducted by

unanimous re-election of Mother Franziska Chantal *^^.^?^®^\ Forem<»t among these is that of the large

was thereupon declared vahd by the Roman authori- ^dition built to the St. Joseph Hospital m Fort

^jgg ^ Wa3me, Ind. This hospital, the cornerstone of which

A new foundation was made at North Finchley near was laid in 1012, is modern in every deteil and is one

London in 1008. It now has flourishing day and ^l *^e ten standardized institutions of its kmd m

boarding schools. Further foundations -took place **^e State of Indiana. In 1013, at Bishop Alerdmgs

in 1012 at Cologne where the Catholic orphanage of expressed desire, the Mercy Hospital at Ganr, Ind.

ded to the sisters' care; m 1014, at was J^ken over by^^he o^er^a^djlater a^^^

ad, where a Catholic girls' school "" "" * *~ ' ^"'" ~^" ..^ ^_„^v.. ^^ i017 a house was founded at Schlei-

den (Eifel), with a small high school, which is also x, i .t a- * l- i_ • . j . *

to serve as a convalescent home for the members of mother-house, the erection cjT which w expected to be

the congregation. Two foundations were added to ^^?P*?i^,^'^ a/^'a^^?* PS ^°?f*u^°*^^ ,9?2"

orphanage at Cologne-Ehrenfeld, which had been ?| ^^?^,®?^ ^J? *^^*'?? ?? ^ institutions iii the established in a separate house from their own during J[°'^, States. The mstitutions under the care of the Kulturkampf ^"® Sisters are hospitals, homes for the aged, orphan- At the present' time the number of houses is 44. ^es, high schools, parochial schools, ood kinder- Owing to the extraordinary mortality during the war ^f^: ^^ Gary, Ind., at the reouest of Fr. DeViUe. and the foUowing years (the average number of deaths *?« listers give instructions m religion to children of before the war was 24, from 1015 to 1020 inclusive it ^ nationalities, who are Catholic, but who attend increased to 65) , the total number of Sisters was 1730 *f « P'^^^lic schools. Over 1300 pupils, divided mto on 1 August, 1021. A considerable number of candi- classes according to a systematic plan, attend th^ dates had to be refused admission on account of over- mstructions. The commimity is representwi m the delicate or 01 health. Besides the provincial novi- o^oceaesof Fort Wayne, Alton, BeUeville, Superior, tiates at Maastricht and Vienna there were two more ^^ ^ ^« Arehdioceses of Chicago and St. Paul, erected at Southam near Rugby (1016) for Endish, popayin. Archdiocese op (Popayanbnsis; cf .

"'^#L^°iP*^^^-^'i^^^'^^^^^?i^^'l^^ C. fi!,"^ Xil-258c), in Colombia. Accordii^g to

and PVench candidates. T^rainmg coUeges for teachers statistics for 1021, there are in the archdioce^ 30

are at Maastncht, Dusseldorf, and Vienna, colleges parishes, 114 churijhes, 2 missions in charge^the

men m Holland; at Vienna, Retz. Stadlan m Austrai; i„ary, which gives higher and preparatory courses

at Brussels, Antwerp, Borabeeck, and Gemmenich has 118 seminarians; lunivemty, 6 colleges for boys

SI ^V2k K^^^"® ^m"^"^®' ^^^ Sisters care more ^nd five for girls, 1 high school, i nom^chool fbr

i5iw'«?^;wi'^^?^^^^ *^^ ' ^"^ ^}^ ^^^^ 30 studenteTl for girls with 36 students;

and studente preparmg f or the University. 32^ elementary schools with 274 teachere and 22,500

The foUowingwere, the co-foundresses of Mother p^pUg and 15 industrial schools; 6 hospitals and

Clara: Mother Theresia Startz , vicaress (d . 2 Septem- 5 oflvlnma All Cathnlif RPhnnIa ori nn^oi* Jtt^^Zri^irZ

ber 1895), Mother Dominica (d. 20 E^ember, f893); of"teledli^ aXl'Sii;Tf'^^"i^^^

Mother MagdiJena, supenorees of Southain (d. 2 the civU Govercment. Recent eventa of important

June, 1902): Sister Aloysius (d. 9 Apnl, 1^9); j^ the dioceee were the celebmtion of the golden

Sister FraMi^,di]*cti^of the church embroidery :„bilee of the restoration of the seminary bv the

work (d. 19 Februaor, 1901^ A book by Mother Lizarists and the separation of part of the temtory

Clara Fey, "Adwnts-imd Weihna^hto-betrachtun- of the diocese, which was erected into the Prefecture

gen, ' was published at Freiburg m 1921. Apostolic of Tierradentra, 13 May, 1921 .

Poor Clares (cf. C. E., XII— 251c).— The Fopnlax Action (Action Populaire).— Among

German community of Poor Clares in the United the many organizations dedicated to the purpose of

States has convents in Cleveland, Chicago, Rockford, Catholic scocial action, one of the most interesting

111., and Oakland, Cal. The Italian community in and most significant is {'Action Poptdaire, founded

the United States has foundations at Omaha, Neb., in France in 1903, by Abb6 Leroy, a French priest