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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 17.djvu/613

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J»08TULANT 597 POTAMIAN

throughout the world. The hierarchy refused to lature of two years or longer was necessary for valid

accept the separation law, and to prove their sin- profession. Abstracting from the constitutions of

cerity y refused even the small stipend allowed to the each order , however, the Code now allows lay brother

priests from a Government which had been so unjust postulants to be received at the age of fourteen and a

to the Church. Numerous priests were imprisoned naif. A postulature of at least six months is necessary

as political offenders. In 1912 several Bisho[)s. in- in all religious institutes having perpetual .vows in

eluding the Patriarch of Lisbon, two archbisnops the case of nuns or sisters and lay brothers^ if the

and six bishops were arrested. The Archbishops of institutes have only temporarv vows the necessity and

Portalegre and Braga were expelled for two years, duration of the postulature depends on the constitu-

Diplomatic relations with the Vatican were suspended tions. The higher superiors ma^ extend this period

ana the next year the Portuguese legation at the of probation but not beyond six months. Before

Vatican was abolished. In 1913 the Bi^op of Oporto bepnning their novitiate postulanta must make a

was arrested for administering confirmation in a spiritual retreat of at lebst eight days and, if their

diocese from which he had been expelled. So un- confessors allow them, a general confession of their

relenting was the Government's attitude that the whole lives, world protested, and the Portuguese Assembly on Codtx juru eanoniei, sso-Ai,

JLf teS^I^P ^rTl^^Xrr^y P«»tnUtion.-When postulation .is «m«ltaj,.eou,

granted to otEere, and that po¥tical prisoners te jnth an elecUon the canons now require the candi^date

liven a free trial to determine whether they were to to receive the approval of at least two-thirds of the

Be exiled or acquitted. Among those exiled were voters; m the pe-Code days he was regiured to have


the same time anotner group oi aemocrats tormea an t""i~* --r--™ "■- — ^-ot' — <"i --...>,. «-~ .. -«,

organization for the Itefens^ of the Republic. After comes tpw/acto null aad void and the electors, unless

Aloup d'etat, President Arriaga resigned, and Theo- *«i«^y ^«" justifiable,. lose their right to elect

philo Braga was elected provisionaf president. He °F Postulate for that occasion Ordinanly, postula-

Served untU 6 October, 1915, when he was succeeded tionM not pemMsible m^pitular elections, by Bernardino Machado, elected on 6 August, 1915. '^"^ '""" ""^'"- "^'^- *"• In March, 1916, Portugal deckred war on Germany, potamtan. Bbotheh, in the world Michael

andjpmed the Allium defendmg the western front. Francis D'Reiixy, scientist and bibliographer, b.

In December, 1917. occurred another revolution, j^ q^ q^ Ireland, on 29 September, 1847;

headed by Major SidomoPaes. Chi 28 April Paes was d. in New York on 20 jMuary, 1917. Hestildiedin

elected president, but was murdered by Uie party ^^^^ Christian Brothers' School, New York, and at

which he overthrew the pre^oiw year. A provM- ^y^^ ^f 4^^,^^ entered the junior novitiate of the

lonal government wm wtebhshed with Joao do institute at Montreal. At the age of twenty-three

CMito e Castro Silya Anfitunes as president, and on 1,^ ^^ gg„t ^^ London, where he taught in St. Joseph's

6 August, 1919, Dr. Antomo Jos6 de Almeida was CoUege. Taking advantage of the opportunities

elected prMiaent. • /% * u inm ofiferS in London to speciimse in scientific studies he

The moa* recent revolirtwn m Octob^ 1921, was p^duated as Master ofArts and Doctor of Science in

tragic in the extreme. Pressure had been brought ^j^^^ University, and was on terms of intimacy

onlPresident Almeida for a more conservatave ad- ^^h Lord Kelvii! Mivart, Huxley and Tyndalf.

ministration with prochvities favonng the. Royahst jj^ ^presented tie British Government m the

onspnera and unfavorable towani the victims of educational section at four international exhibitions,

Major adonio Paes s revolution of December, 1917. y (i873), Philadelphia (1876), Paris (1889) and

These victims a year later became the murderers .of Chicago (1893 : at Chic^o he was a member of the

Pa^and the results of his revolution drove mto e«le j »«f AwarSs. He tought at the De La Salle


revpiuwon nave oeeu uevermmeu m, reowre uub «uc jj^^ york, where he died twenty-one years later,

faction government, m it had ejosted prior to the pg^j^ the greatest testimony to hw scientific

revolution of December, 1917. Jl»« ^volutionuts gcholarehip wai his selection by the trustees of the

hoped to achieve their ends by peaceful meaM but Americanlnstitute of Electrical Engineers to compile

they allowed the revengeful Carbonano to arm them- p-talome ravumnS of the LfttimerCIftrk Lihrarv

^Ives at the NavsJ Wd^ Admir^Ms^hado dos ?h^3'^co'S"te',Sfu^tion ofb^^

Santos, the founder of the repubhc.w^^ electricity. TiSe work was accomplished sucE^

•"^ ^t M^ tw '^^Mt^„» !fnH-,?iS^SSLf'p„' fully in «ven years, and the catalogue ranks with the

arrest, the Minister ^Marine under President P^ j^^^ catelo^es oi the Sui^eon^General's Library

was shot dead, and Senhor Cranio, Captam Ereitas ^ Washington. Brother Potamian was as unas-

da Silva and Captwn CmIos da Mam w^^ ^„j„ asX^was learned; he was a popular lecturer

The Army of Portugal w a mUitiaraised by co^ ^ ,,g ^^^ j^ ^^^^ ^ ^ t£e chief features

scnption "^d conswts o^a W 30^C^ (p«we ^ ^^^ Catholic Summer School, Lake Champlain.

footing). The navy Pewomiel is about OWO.Dur- ^ j^ j^ "Gleanings in Electrical

ing the WM 65,062 officers and men were sent to Histonr;" "FrankliTand De Romas, "r the Lightning

France. The casualties were: 1862 killed, 6224 Kite^ Gilbertof cSchester "The Rototionof the

wounded, and 6678 taken prisoners. The military pv-fi,." "KWtrip TUnmiimtinn" rro-authorV "The

""'^i^ti^'rao'S^ "^ ^- ""'^ "** "' *"* w2Si;tdfiSWisS"Ca^lCe^^^^^^^

population IS Cathohc. q^^^ '^^ ^ ^^ illiStrated accoSnt of works on

'B«.»ni.n«- n« -» k^^^^t:^ TV..^.. ^t !....»..„ dectrfcity and magnetism from earliest times to the

^Qf^^^^iryj^.^^h^nh^^^d^^ISl middle of the nineteenth century." Brother Potamian

'^^r^yo^^L^'^^.^^^Z^^t^^h was a coUabora.tor in the CaS^ouc E.v^^^^

cases the reception of lay brother candidates onthe *«'^^^"*Z;^}J^:r\^?^'c^'Si1?cfeP^^h-

completion of theur seventeenth year, but a postu- 33-42.