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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 17.djvu/616

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PBEACHIKO 600 PBEACHma

morals among the people, have taken a notable part It has 34 foreign missions, on which 450 Fathers and

in the formation and development of more than one Brothers are engaged. The Province of St. Joseph,

religious order. in the United States, has now accepted a foreign

The 36 Annamcse and the 8 Tonkin martjrrs mission in the civil prefecture of Kien-ning-Fu,

beatified, respectively 27 May, 1900, and 20 May, about 170 miles north of the city of Fu-chau, China.

1906, belonged to the Province of the Philippines, There are about 5000 enclosed Dominican Nuns

as did the proto-Chinese martjrr, Francis de Capillas (Second. Order), nearly half of whom are in ascetic

(d. 1648), who was beatified, 2 May, 1909. The Spain. The United States has 300. The Conventual

same province still has its famous Indo-Chinese Third Order Sisters number more than 20,000.

minions in East, North, and Central Tonkin. Bishop Almost half of these are in the United States. The

Edward D. Fen wick (d. 1832), Father Matthew principal mother-houses of the American Sisters

A. O'Brien (d. 1871), and Father Nicholas D. Young specially devoted to educational work are located

(d. 1878) stand out as conspicuous examples S at Springfield, Ky.; Columbus, O^ Caldwell, N. J.;

missionary laborers in the United States. Brookland and Newburgh, N. Y .: Fall River, Mass.:

In spite of revolutions and social upheavals, the Adrian and Grand lUipids, Mich.; Racine ana Order of Preachers has continued to f(»ter a cultiva- Sinsinawa, Wis.; Springneld, 111.; Nashville, Tenn.: tion of the fine arts, especially that of architecture. New Orleans, La.; Galveston, Tex.; San Rafael and Among the splendid structures it has erected within Mission San Jos^, Cal.; and Tacoma^ Wash. The the last seventy-five years are the Church of St. Dominican Sisters of the Sick Poor, with their head- Saviour, Dublin, Ireland: that of St. Dominic, quarters in New York City, are performing a noble London, England; St. Thomas's Priory, Zwolle, mission of charity. The Foreign Mission Sisters of Holland: the CoUegio An^lico, Rome; and in the St. Dominic, Maryknoll^ N. i.. devote themselves United States, the Domimcan House of Studies, at to the Christian instruction of Cninese and Japanese the Catholic University, Washington, D. C, and in the United States as well as in foreign lands. St. Vincent Ferrer's Church, New York. St. Dom- Other communities again, with their principal houses inic's Church, San Francisco, destroyed by the at Sparkill and Blauvelt, N. Y., are engaged in the earthquake of 1906, was a fine specunen of the care of orphans and other like works of benevolence. Romanesque basilica. Throughout the order the The members of the Third Order living in the world lay brothers have ever been among its most skillful are very numerous; but, quite naturally, this branch artists and architects. of the institute flourishes especially in those places

The late World War, which appeared to bode so where the other divisions are established,

badly for religion, seems rather to have turned the The order has 14 canonized Saints. St. Dominic

minds of men to God. Since its close vocations (d. 1221), St. Peter of Verona, commonly called St.

have increased. The members of the First Order Peter Martyr (d. 1252). St. Hyacinth, apostle of

are considerably more numerous than they were a Poland (d. 1257), St. Tnomas of Aquin (a. 1274),

decade ago. After the return of peace, even in those St. Raymond of Pennafort (d. 1275), St. Vincent

countries which suffered most from the upheaval, Ferrer (d. 1419), St. Antoninus of Florence (d. 1450),

the Fathers^ undismayed by tneir trials, resumed their St. Pius V (d. 1752), St. John of Cologne (d. 1573),

various social, intellectual, religious, and missionary and St. Ix>uis Bertrand (d. 1581) are of the First

endeavors. It is worthy of note that the Biblical Order. St. Agnes of Montepulciano (d. 1317) was a

School of St. Stephen, Jerusalem, haQ been accredited member of me Second Order. St. Catherine di

to the French Academy of Inscriptions and Belles- Ricci (d. 1589) belonged to the Conventual Third

Lettres^ and honored with the title of "L'Ecole Order. St. Catherine of Sienna (d. 1380) and St.

Frangaise Arch^olo^ique de Jerusalem." In prac- Rose of Lima (d. 1615) are the glory of the Third

tically all the provmces the publication of religious Order living in the world. Besides these, some

and scientific views has been revived. The output 290 members of the three orders of St. Dominic have

of books and other literary productions shows an been beatified and perhaps as many as 600 others

intense intellectual activity. For many years the have been declared venerable by the Church, or are

labors of the Friars Preachers in the English-speaking regarded as such in the piety of the faithful,

countries, especially in the United States, in givine Jarrbtt, EnglUh Dominican* (London. I92i).

parochial missions have been enormous. Although ^* ^' ^ Daniel.

teaching in the universities and seminaries has iw.^-«i,4«« n^u u- * * -.«^««u;«- :« 4^ «« 

always Been regarded as a part of the order's apostol- . f t^^^'^^^w "^^^""^ rlJ'f^^^LrS.^ ml

ate, conductini secular cofleges was looked u^n as able the faithful to know God to undersUnd His

foreign to its vocation. In more recent timesVhow- f^^^^L^^^ft. *^^ >^,u "^^f fi ^'^'^ ^^l ^^^^

ever, the Fathers have begun to engage in this work *e*r^/?'f^. ^^ theu- fellow-men. As the care of

as ccJnducive to the end of the institute, which is the the faithful in spiritual matters was entrusted by

salvation of souls. The Province of the Phflippines, Christ to St. Peter and the Apostles the duty of

for instance, has several such institutions, and that preaching the truths of religion devolv^ on their

of St. Joseph, in the United States, has two; whUe successors m their respective spheres, that is pri-

the Province of the Holy Name is starting one in mafily on the pope for the whole world and on the

California. bishops for their dioceses. Confronted with the

According to the latest statistics ("Analecta prevalent disregard of the supernatural and the

Ordinis Pnedicatorum," May-August, 1921), there adoption of pagan standards of living throu^out

are today 352 convents and secondary institutions Christendom, Pope Benedict XV, realizing that this

of the order distributed through 31 provinces and 2 condition was in part due to the failure of pre^-

congregations. Forty of these institutions are in ing to supply the proper antidotes, issued aii En-

the United States, belonging respectively 26 to the cyclical "Humani genens" (15 June, 1917), deaUng

province of St. Joseph, 10 to that of California, 2 with the preaching of the Gospel. The three abuses

to that of the Philippines, and 2 to that of Canada, which he signalized as in need of urgent refwm

Fourteen convents of the order are under the im- were (1) the unwarranted assumption of the office

mediate jurisdiction of the master general. The of preaching on the part of many; (2) the unfitness

members of the First Order now numter some 5000, of many of those who had been sJlowed to preach ;

and about 1000 students are preparing to enter the (3) the manner and procedure of not a few preach-

novitiates. Two of its members are cardinals, 7 ers, inspired as they were by vain glory, by a do-

(irchbishops, 19 bishops, apd 7 prefects apostolic, sire to rival the leaders of the stage or political