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profession made after the nullity became known and inspired by a variety of motives such as penance

the impediment was removed; if, however, it was or desire for better health or as a mere exercise of

invalid from a mere ntemal defect of consent, it will-power or from physical dislike, whereas Prohi-

becomes valid when that consent is given, provided bition is imposed by force of law and is not neces-

the institute has not alreadv withdrawn its consent, sarily a virtue. It is important to keep these

(^J!:^iT\^^^' '^' ^i^'*-^^^' ^fi^^ distinctions clear. All decent people advocate

(New York, 1918) CuunN, Rdtgnmx et rdioieMta (Bruawb, x,,^-^^-.^ ,«««„ T^^Mia^ ♦^♦ol »Klf ;»a.««^ U,,*

1921) VBiuiEBHKJH^iMunK.JBpitoilwVt^ tcmpcrance, many practise total abstinence, but

1921); FuHBicH. De religion* (izmabruok, 1919); Fisbbbm, there IS a sharp and bitter division of sentiment

Jn^thMonef Cancm^ (BaredoM. 192W; Pbuumsb. Manwde on the question of Prohibition.

,ur« ecc^snaU^c^ (ft«burt. 1920). jj GENERAL PRINCIPtE8.-It is manifest that

Profession of Faith. — AH customs to the contrary Prohibition can have no justification on the ground being reprobated, a profession of faith according to of any inherent and essential evil in liquor. All the formula approvea by the Holy See must be nmde material things, whether drink or food or clothing, personally as follows: (a) Those who assist at a etc., are the creations, either actually or potentially, general or special council or diocesan synod with a of God, Who meant man tc use and enjoy them consultive or deliberate vote must make it before the rationally. Matter is not evil in se. Long ago the president or his delegate: the president makes it Church condemned such fantastic philosophy when in presence of the council or s3mod; (b) cardinals- battling with the Manichean sects. Alcohol, as elect in presence of the dean of the sacred college, such, therefore is no more evil than wheat or the first cardinal priest and deacon, and the earner- water or fruit. Were it otherwise, it is strange lengo; (c) those promoted to an episcopal see, even that the Creator should have so universally pro- non-residential, or to abbeys nullius, vicariates vided nature with the power to produce alcohol. Apostolic, or prefectures Apostolic, in presence of The onl^ premise, therefore, at all justifying a an Apostolic delegate; (d) a vicar capitular in presence discussion of Prohibition relates to the abuse of of the cathedral chapter; (e) those promoted to a alcohol, exactly the same as if it were a discussion dignity or canonry, in presence of the local ordinary on the abuses of marriage or political government or his delegate and or the chapter; (f) newly ap- or eating or dressing or playing. Theoretically pointed diocesan consultors, the local ordinary or his most Prohibitionists would admit this, though delegate and before the other consultors; (g) vicars practically their extreme language would indicate general, parish priests, and all those who' have been that they do ascribe some sort of essential evil to provided with a benefice, even manual, having the liquor as such. At all events, the onlv possible cure of souls annexed: rectors and professors of ground for discussion of the drink problem is Uie theology, canon law, ana philosophy in seminaries, at abuse of drink. Any other discussion is futile and the commencement of each scholastic year or at least necessarily endless. Moreover, Prohibition is not on taking office; all candidates for the subdiaconate; necessarily a religious or even moral issue. It be- all diocesan censors of books; all prieste before ob- comes so only when the abuses of alcohol affect taining faculties to hear confessions or to preach, the morality of its victims, as can be said with make the profession of faith in presence of the local equal truth of the abuses of the theatre or dancing ordinary or his delegate; (h) the rector of a uni- or dressing. This should particularly be borne in versity or faculty, in presence of the ordinary or his mind in view of the tendency here in the United delegate; all the professors in a canonically erected States to promote Prohibition throu^ religious university or faculty, at the beginning of each agencies, in fact by an appeal to religious fanati- scholastic year or at least on assumin|[ office, and cism. Equally important is it to keep in mind candidates who, having passed the exammations, are that Prohibition cannot be based upon Scriptural about to receive their degree in presence of the rector grounds. Whilst the Bible of course utters many of .the university or faculty or his delegate; (i) admonitions against drunkenness, it is manifestly superiors in clerical religious orders or congreMitions, indifferent concerning the use of drink which it the chapter or the superior who designated them or evidently recognizes as an universal human cus- hk delegate. Those who after having relmquished an tom. Only a fanatical textual criticism would office, benefice, or dimity, even of the same kmd as attempt to distort isolated texts or particular words one which they had previously held, must agam into a univereal condemnation of drink. In this make profession of faith, in the manner just pre- connection it is significant that Christ's very first scnbed. Any one who neglects to make this profes- miracle was the changing of water into wine. His sion without just cause is to be admonished after a selection of wine for the Eucharistic sacrifice com- smtable tune;^ould he then prove contumacious he pjgtely throws out of court any appeal of Prohibi- is to be punished with privation of his office^nefice tionists to the Bible. It is true that the extremists or dignity, and of the revenue accrumg therefrom. among them endeavor to show that He used the

Progressive Spiritual Church. See New Thought, unfermented juice of the grape but,, as above

^ '^ observed, this is a fanatic texual criticism gone

Prohibition. — I. Definition . — Prohibition, as mad, and is moreover in direct opposition to the commonly spoken of and practically so understood, universal interpretation of the Christian world can best be defined specifically as the forbidding by (both Catholic and Protestant) up to the present, civil law of the manufacture, sale and transporta- In a word, then, the whole discussion of the ques- tion of intoxicating lic^uor for beverage purposes, tion of Prohibition resolves itself down to a ques- exception being made m the case of liquor when tion of the abuse of alcohol. The only question used for scientific, commercial, medicinal and sac- to be seriously discussed is whether or not this ramental purposes. As so defined it must be abuse has become such a grave menace to the clearly distinguished from both temperance and political, economic or moral life of society that to total abstention. The former is a virtue by which preserve itself from destruction society must either one uses liouor or any other material thing in altogether abolish its use or restrain it within reason, so that a man can drink an intoxicating reasonable bounds.

beverage and at the same time be perfectly tem- III. History.— The United States is the only

perate oy drinking the same in reasonable modera- civilized nation of any size or importance, past or

tion. Total abstinence differs likewise from Prohi- present, which has attempted real and absolute

bition in the sense that it is a voluntary act. Prohibition. (For apparent or unimportant excep-