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Poland at the division of Austria-Hunfl^ry. Thepres- 1913| the grandson of Renan read his profession of

ent bishop is Mgr. Joseph Sebastian relczar, bom at faith after which he went to confession and received

Korczyna, 17 January, 1842, elected titular bishop of absolution. He was confirmed 8 February , taking

Miletopolis 20 Febniaiy , 1899, transferred 17 Decern* the name of Paul in reparation for Renan's treatment

ber, 1900, and enthronea 13 January, 1901, succeed- of the Apostle. After a "year of prayer" he decided

in^ Mgr. Solecki, deceased, as Bishop of Frzemyd. to become a Dominican. He was still at Cherbourg

HisauxiliaryisRt. Rev. Charles Joseph Fischer, bom when war was declared and on the second day of

in Jaslo, 1847, elected titular bishop of Mallus 15 mobilization set out for the battle front During

April 2 1901. During the war the Diocese of Przemysl those first days of surprise and defeat Lieutenant

was mvaded by the Russians, Germans, Austro- Psichari was an inspiration to his men and after

Hungarians and Ukranian rebels. The city was cap- twelve hours of terrific fighting at St. Vincent-

tured by the Russians in March, 1915, and many Rossignol in Belgium, he fell, shot in the temple, and

towns and villages were burned, also about 100 was found with his rosanr wound about his wrist

churches of the Latin Rite. About 100 diocesan and on his lips the smile of a great peace,

priests were chaplains in the Austrian (later Polish) Samxtel Fowle Telfair, Jr. army, six of whom were captured by the Russians.

Many priests. Sisters and Polish laywomen worked in Psychoanalysis (Gr. "^vx^, AK^Xwrts), means a

hospitals, way-stations and other places to relieve disclosing of the mental content, the latter being

the misery of the soldiers, prisoners, the poor and the taken in its widest extent as embracing both the

many orphans. In 1921 the diocese contained 345 conscious as well as the unconscious psychic

parishes, 1,200,000 Latin Catholics, 760,000 Uniat processes. It began as a therapeutic treatment of

Catholics (Greek Ruthenian), 200,000 non-Catholics certain neurotic diseases, but quickly developed

(mostly Jews), 345 parishes, 30 convents and monas- into a general science of the unconscious which

teries for men, 135 for women, 699 secular and 150 aims at a complete reorientation of human life and

regular priests, 1 upper seminary, 81 seminarians, 1 a far-reaching revaluation of its values. In its nar-

lower seminary, many orphanages and hospitals. The rower aspects, it may be defined as a therapeutic

schools are supported and directed by the Govem- procedure designed for the cure of nervous disor-

ment and relimon is taught m all schools by priests ders which it effects by means of a mental analysis

appointed by the bishop and pensioned by the govem- revealing and removing the underlying psychic

ment. There are three associations among the clergy causes that are at the bottom of these abnormal

and many and vaned ones m each pansh for the laity . conditions in its larger acceptation, it may bede-

An official paper is published by the bishop. scribed as the investigation of the content and the

Praemysl, Sambor and Sanok, Diocese of workings of the unconscious mind and df the rela- of the Greek Uniat Rite, using the Ruthenian lan^ *\?^ between the unconscious and the conscious m guage, in Western Galicia Poland, suffragan of Lwow J^U mamfestations of human ife. Taken m this (Lemberg). This diocese includes the temtory of the ^^^^ sense psychoanalysis intimate con- Latin diocese of the same name and also that of the ^acts with all the phenomena of civilization and Latin diocese of Tamow. The present bishop. is Mgr. pretends to furmsh a new basis for human activi- JosaphatJosephKoeylow8ky,borninPakosziwkain \]^ i^ ^^' education, naorality and religion In 1876, ordained in 1907, elected 29 January, 1917, to J^^^^^w years of its existence," writes Dr. Andre succeed Mgr. Czechowicz, deceased. In 1915 the Tridon, psychoanalysw has made a deep impres- diocese contained 1,252,492 Greek Catholics, 819 sion on all the mental sciences and has especiaUy secular priests, of whom 685 are married, 140 widow- revolutionized psychology, ethira and psychiatiy. ers and 28 celibates, 36 regular priests, 697 parishes Ifs terminology, at first forbiddmg, has ennched and 1374 churches or chapels. <^he language with entirely new expressions, without

which the cultured would find themselvess helpless

PBicharl, Ernest, author and soldier, b. 27 i° psychological discussions. It has supplied not September, 1883, d. 22 August, 1914, the son of only physicians, but artists, thinkers, socwlogiste. Jean Psichari, a professor at the Ecole des Hautes educators, and critics with a new point of view. It Etudes, by his wife No^mi Renan, daughter of the offers to the average man and woman a new ra- famous sceptic. M. Psichari, being a member of the <^»onal code of behavior based on science instead of Orthodox Greek Church, Ernest was baptised ac- faith." Dr. Isador H. Coriat speaks in the same cording to the Greek Rite, but thenceforth religion strain: "Psychoanalysis is beginning to found a formed no part in his life. At the lyciea Henri IV new ethics as well as a new psychology, a new and Condorcet, he displayed brilliant mental gifts neurology and a new school of literary criticisna." and a poetical temperament, writing verses in the This sweeping claim is based on the alleged dis- manner of Verlaine. In 1902 Psichari left Paris to covery, made by the psychoanalysts, that the dif- spend a year of military service in a provincial gar- ferences between the content of the unconscious of rison. At the end of the year he returned to Paris the abnormal and of the normal are extremely to take up his studies, but in 1904 he enlisted in the slight and that consequently the laws governing 51st Regiment of the line and in 1906 was sent to pathological conditions of the mind nxay be ex- Africa. In 1907 he returned to France, was promoted tended to its healthy states. The highest and the sub-lieutenant in 1909 and at once set out for Maure- lowest are thus brought together and explained by tania, French West Africa. His first book "Terres the same causes. Whatever there is most exalted de Soleil et de Sommeil" was followed by "L'Appel des in man can be adequately understood as a trans- Armes" ^written in Mauretania, 1910-1912), which figuration of the vilest animal instincts. Thus is an apology for the military life and in which there psychoanalysis would have us believe. "For," de- is seen the author's groping for faith. Close after clares Miss Beatrice M. Hinkle in her introduction follow8"Le Voyage du Centurion" which is auto- to Dr. C. G. Jung's notorious "Psychology of the biop^raphical, although told in the third person. Unconscious," "this theory has so widened in its This book tells of a French soldier in Africa searching scope that its application has now extended beyond for faith and finding it. Psichari left Africa in 1912 a particular group of pathological states. It has in and was stationed at Cherbourg where although he fact led to a new evaluation of the whole conduct read a great deal concerning the Faith, confession of human life; a new comprehension has developed still seemed a stumbling block. On 4 February , which explains those things that formerly were