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de Bon-Seoours into a minor basilica, accorded by the rests with 4 archbishops, the first being called the

brief of 28 March, 1919. Primate of Rumania, the second, the Archbishop of

Moldavia; the third, of Transylvania, and the

Bontliler, Adolphb, Qmadian lawyer, b. 1839 fourth of Bukovina; besides these there were 10

at St. Placide, Quebec, d. 19 June, 1920. He bishops of the National Church. Transylvania has

received the degrees of LL.D. and Lit.D. from Laval a Greek Catholic archbishop and 3 bishops. The

University. He was admitted to the Canadian bar clerry^ of the National Orthodox Church are paid by

1861, beScame Professor of International Law at theDtate;thoseof other denominations, sub ventioned

Laval University, Judge of the Superior Court of by the State. Religious liberty prevails throughout

Quebec (1873-1904) and Chief Justice (1904-6), the country. The Catholic population is divided

President of the Court of Admiralty for the Province among the Archdiocese of Jassy and the dioceses of'

of Quebec from 1904 and was knighted 1911. He was Bucharest, Csanad, Nagy-Vdrad, Transylvania and

maae Knight Commander of St. Gregory bv Pius Szathmar.

DC and a Grand Commander of St. Gre^ry by Leo Economics. — In 1921 extensive agrarian reforms,

XIII. He wrote a number of volimies in prose and foundations of which were laid in 1917, were taken

verse under the pen name of "Jean Picquefort." in hand by the government. It was ordered that

all estates of 500 hectares in Rumania proper, and

BoBoava (or Rosenau), Diocese of (Rosena- of over 100 hectares in Bessarabia, Bukovma, and vibnsib; cf. C. £., XIII — 192b), suffragan of Transylvania, should be distributed to the peasantry, £^r. — The diocese suffered greatly from the ravages who were required to pay 65% of the pre-war value, of the war, and moreover was called upon in 1919 to the State paying the remaining 35^; time for pay- fight against the invading Bolsheviki. The schools ment to extend over a period 0145 years. In 19i20 a devoted themselves to making warm clothing for the series of paralyzing strikes culminated in an attempt soldiers, and various associations were formed among to overthrow the government. The scheme was clergy and laity for tending the needy. The creation defeated by the Premier, General Averescu. who of £e new republic of Czechoslovakia divided the caused the arrest of all Socialist and Syndicalist diocese into two parts — Hungarian and Slavonic; leaders who had endorsed the Third International, the episcopal see remains in Czechoslovakia and 19 By his order all technical workers were called to the parishes in Hungary fall under its administration, the colors and placed under military discipline. The Apostolic See having refused to dismember the dio- chief crops with their area and production for 1920 cese. Of special note are the following recently were: Wneat, 2,095,890 acres, 630,000 tons; rye, deceased: Bishop Louis Balas de Sipek (d. 1920). 183,675 acres, 52,000 tons; barley, 1,053,736 acres, who ably governed the diocese through the crucial 460,000 tons; oats, 971,102 acres, 425,000 tons; period of the war; Rev. Anthony Szuszai (d. 1917), maize, 4,051,494 acres, 1,773,000 tons; tobacco, pastor of Dobsina and ecclesiastical author of merit; 11.250 acres, 5000 tons. In 1919 the imports were Paul Vener and Martin Gobi, cathedral canons: valued at £143,317.825; the exports, £4,115,647. AdalvertSerenyi(d. 1919), minister of agriculture and The revenue for 1921-22 was estimated at £208,- commerce during the war. 800.000, and the expenditure, £199,250,035.

The statistics of 1910 ^ve the total population Education. — Education is free and compulsory,

of the diocese as 372,914, divided as follows: Catholics as far as possible. In 1918r-19 there were 5764 ele-

204,076; Greek Uniats 10,140; Greek Orthodox 747; mentary schools with 11.088 teachers and 692,896

Lutherans 100,571; Calvinists 45,308; Jews 11,921; pupils. The same year educational institutions were

Unitarians 2; Baptists 38; Nazarenes 111. There are as follows: for boys, 56 lyceimis, 13 gymnasiums

165 secular and 22 regular priests; 99 parishes and 180 and 7 seminaries, with a total of 1287 teachers and

churches; 1 monastic house for men; 3 convents for 44,983 pupils; for girls, 66 (12 state and 54 private)

men and 4 for women: 1 seminary; 151 normal schools high scnoob with 1051 teachers and 9584 pupils;

with 202 teachers ana 14,000 students; 1 asylum and 12 normal schools for men and 4 for women; 75

1 orphanage; 4 hospitals; 4 religious organizations professional schools for bo^ and 54 for girls; 25 com-

among the clergy and 6 among the laity; 1 Catholic mercial schools, 25 agricultural schools, and 4

perio£<^. The Govemmenj; supports the Catholic universities at Bucharest, Cluj in Transylvania

institutions. . (founded in 1919) ^ lasi (Jassv), and Cemauti (Czer-

nowitz} in Bukovma, (founded in 1920). In Tran-

Bumanla; (cf . C. E., XIII— 224d). — ^A monarchy in sylvania extreme bitterness resulted from a Govcm-

Southeastem Europe which has an area of 122,282 ment decree in 1921 requiring Magyar children to

square miles and a population of about 8,631,000. attend Rumanian schools.

Tne present state includes Moldavia (14,170 square Defence. — Military service in Rumania is corn- miles), Grand Wallachia (29,810 square miles), pulsorv and universal, from the ages of 21 to 46. Oltenia and Dobrudja (8969 square miles); the depart- The Rumanian losses in killed and missing during mentsof Durostor and Caliacra (2969 square miles) , the war amounted to 335,706. In January, 1921, ceded by the Treaty of Bucharest in' 1913, Bessarabia the approximate strength of the army was 250,000 (17,146square miles), joined in March, 1918; Bukovina men. The public debt of Rumania amounted on (4030 square miles), joined in November, 1918, and AprU 1, 1921, to 20,311^293.312 lei (1 lei«=$.193 Transylvania (22,312 square miles) in December, normal exchange), of which 3,733,862,452 lei con- 1918. The largest cities are Bucharest, with a stitutes the consolidated debt, and 121,500,000 lei population in 1917 of 308,987; Chisinau, 114,100; the floating debt. This is exclusive of the propor- Cemauti, 87,128; Ismail, 85,600; lasi (Jassy), 76,120; tions of the debts of Austria-Hungary and Russia. Galatz, 73,512; Timisivara, 72,223; Braila, 65,911. which have been assumed by Rumania, the total of In 1918 there were 103^072 births, 297,310 deaths, which is about 10,000,000,000 lei. 57,345 marriages, and m 1919, 865 divorces were Communications. — Notwithstandinj; the efforts of granted. the Government, railway transportation at the end

Religion. — Of the total population of Rumania of 1920 was still almost as impossible as in 1914.

iQ 1918, 9,695,714 belonged to the Orthodox Church; The bridge at Cemavoda (over the Borea) con-

1,456,147 were Greek Catholics, 1,483,929 were necting the interior of the country with Constantza,

Roman Catholics, 1,344,970 Protestants, 17,596 the only all-year port of Rumania, was not repaired

Armenians^^ 834,344 Jews, and 44,087 Moham- in 1921. Motor transport has been attempted with

medans. The government of the Orthodox Church little success. The railway mileage in 1920 was