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college coursefl were opened and since then the progress League and the Apostolic Union are established among

of the college has been rapid. It comprises a good the clergy, laboratory, gymnasium, and a library of 5000

volumes. A monthly paper, the "News-Letter," 8aint Paul of Honfary, Hbrmcts op (cf. C. E.,

published here, will be developed into a quarterly XI— 687c) .—In 1864 the Pauline Order had in

magazine in June, 1922, in commemoration of the Russian Poland 19 convent?, but in the same year

golden jubilee of the foundation. Student or^niza- **^ese foundations were annihilated bv the Russian

tions comprise the League of the Sacred Heart, povemment. Only one, Jasna Gora (Csestochowa),

Sodality of the ImmacuSite Conception, The Cm- ^ ^^ Diocese of Wladislaw, remamed. In Austrian

saders. Missionary Sewing Circle, Lea Deux Pleiades, P?^d, after the edict of the Emoeror Joseph II

Dramatic Club, and Musical Societies. Eight all the Paubne conventa were closed , exropt that at

religious and 1 lay teacher, all university graduates, Skalka, m the Diocese of Cracow. The German

compose the faculty. The present registration (1922) government was always opposed to Polish orders, hence

numbers 235 students. there were never anv Paulme convents m Prussian

Poland. Immediately after the end of the war

Saint Mary's Seminary, Baltimore, was founded al- (1919) the order recovered one of ite ancient founda-

most simultaneously with the establishment of the tions at Lesna, near Brest Litovsk, in the Diocese of

American hierarchy, as it was formally opened under Podlachia. In 1920 these three Pauline convents,

the patronage of the first American bishop, the at Jasna Gora, Skalka, and Lesna, elected as general

Rt. Rev. John Carroll, on 3 October^ 1791. The superior Fr. Peter Markiewicz. He was bom at

Seminary was in char^ of the Sulpician Fathers Kalisz in 1877, made his ecclesiastical studies at

under the Rev. Francis Nagot, with three priests and Wladislaw and hi^er theological studies at Rome,

five seminarians. In 1804 the rank and privilege of and was ordained m 1906. The last general superior

a State University were granted to the Seminary by had died in 1871, since which time the Russian

the Maryland Assembly and in 1822 Pope Pius VII government had forbidden the election of a successor,

solemnly conferred upon it the titie, rights, and The Pauline Order is now beginning to extend its

privileges of a Catholic Universit>r. A complete work, endeavoring to recover ite ancient foundations,

faculty of able professors was maintained during and has a rule conformed to the new Code of Canon

the administrations of Frs. Nagot (1791-1810). Law. There are 46 members of the order. An ec-

John M. Tessier (1810-29). and Louis R. Deluoi clesiastical school or juvenate for bo3rs who feel

(1829-49), and ? although tne studente were very inclined to enter the religious life, has been establish-

few they mcluded some of the most zealous mission- ed. The order also directe some religious and pioua

aries and prominent churchmen of the time. An era congregations in Czestochowa. In Lesna the mem-

of growth and prosperity for the Seminaiy was ushered bers have parochial duties as well as the spiritual

in, however, with the establishment of St. Charles care and direction of the teachers' seminary there.

College, Ellicott City, MdL, in 1848, and under Tlie novitiate and house of studies are in Cracow,

the administration of Frs. Irancis Lhomme (1848- In 1915 occurred the death of Fv. Justin Welonski.

60), Alphonse Magnien (1878-1902), and R. Dyer who had been prior since 1910, previously rector ot

Q902- ) the institution has made marked progress, the ecclesiastical seminary at Plock, and had entered

Since 1853 St. Mary's Seminary has been exclusively the order as a rector.

a theological seminary with philosophy and theology « , ^ ,. , _^^^ ^ ^^ .«. ,• /« « 

courses. In the year 1920-21 there were 21 membere ^alnt Paul-wUhout-tho-WallB (San ^ Paolo

in the faculty and a registration of 320 studente, of ^uoRi le Mura; cf. C. E., XIII— 369b), a Benedic-

whom 56 were ordainwrprieste. The number of de- tine abbey nullius of the Cassinese Congregation, and

grees conferred was as follows: B.A., 20; M.A., 15; o?« of the patriarchal churches of Rome, dependent

Bachelor of Theology, 6; Doctor of Canon Law, 1; directiy on the Holy See. On 1^3 March, 1918,

Doctor of Letters 1 occurred the death of the Abbot Nullius Dom Gio-

' * vanni del Papa, O.S.B., b. 1850, professed 1871.

Ballot Maurice en Valais, Abbey Nuluub of. ordained 1876, elected 23 September, 1904, blessed

See AoAUNUM * ^^ November following. He was succeeded by Dom

Ildefonso Schuster, O.S.B., b. 1880, professed 1899.

Saint Paul, Archdiocese op (Sancti Pauli; ordained 1904. elected 6 April, 1918, blessed 13 Apr^^^

cf. C. E., XIII— 366d), in Minnesote. On 25 Sep- following. The abbey nuUius taa 3 panshM. 13

tember, 1918, occurred the death of Archbishop John churches, 4 secular prieste, 25 regular priMte, 15 lay

Ireland (q. v.). He was succeeded by Most Rev. brothers, 11 semmanans, and the care of 5000 Catho-

Austin Dowling, who was ordained 24 June, 1891, ^ics- Dependent on it are 1 monastery of nuns and

appointed Bishop of Des Moines, Iowa, 31 January, 3 convents of Sisters. Three day nurseries are estob-

1912, consecrate 25 April following, nominated Arch- lished. There are 10 confratenuties and many aseo-

bishop of St. Paul, 1 February, 1919. The campaign ciatioM among the young men and women. A

for educational works of the archdiocese in October monthly diocesan bulletm is published.

diocese is about 265,000 of various nationalities, the ^""^"*

French and German elemente predominating^. A Salnt-Ptom and Mlanelon, Pbefegturb Apo&-

Catholic newspaper called the "Cfatholic Bulletm" is touc op (Insularuic S. Petri et Miquelonensis;

published at St. Paul. Bureaus of Catholic Charities cf. C. £., XIII — 376a), comprises a small group of

are esteblished in St. Paul and Minneapolis. There islands south of Newfoundland, belonging to France,

are in the archdiocese: 200 parishes, 262 churches, 62 The prefect Apostolic is Mgr. Joseph Oster, b. at

missions, 3 convente for men, 295 secular prieste, 51 Berstneim, in diocese of Strasbuig, France. 19

regular prieste, 1380 Sisters, 2 seminaries with 170 April, 1846, entered the Congregation of Holy Gnost,

seminarians, 1 college for men with 48 professors and 1862, provincial in United Stetes, pro-prefect in 1912,

850 studente, 22 high schools with 143 teachers and prefect 16 January, 1916, with residence at Saint

3171 pupils, 1 normal school with an attendance of Pierre. On the islands there are 3 parishes, 3

56, 105 elementery schools with 600 teachers and churches. 2 convente of women, 6 regular prieste, 1

23,692 pupils, 4 homes, 3 asvlums, 3 hospitals, 1 lay brother, 28 Sisters. 1 coll^ for boys, with 3

refuge, 2 settlement houses. The Prieste' Eucharistic instructors and 58 stuaente and 1 for girls with 15