1919| in his ninety-third year. Bom in Canada in 1826, he had joined the institute at Joliette in 1847, was ordained priest in 1852, afterwards professor and director at Joliette College and pastor of Joliette, provincial of Canada in 1870, vicar of the institute in 1880, and elected superior general in 1890. He governed the institute for twenty-nine years, safely guiding it through the agitated period of spoliation, persecution and dispersion in France, and the dis- astrous years of the World War. He transferred the general direction of the institute from Vourles to Paris in 1896, and after the French edict against re- ligious congregations in 1903 transferred it again to E^ldum, first at Aerschot and then in 1908 at Jette- St-Pierre. He was succeeded as superior general by Very Rev. Pierre Robert, elected by the general chapter convened at Jette-St-Pierre, 22 Ma^r, 1919. Fr. Robert was bom in France in 1862, joined the congregation in 1876, was ordained in 1886, director of St. Michel secondary school at Paris in 1890, provincial at Vourles 1900, vicar of the institute 1909, elected superior general 1919. author of a life of the founder of the institute and nistory of the congrega- tion up to 1860: Vie du Pdre Louis Q^erbes" (Brussels, 1922). Very Rev. Francois-Michel Roberge was elected vicar of the institute and two new assistants were also appointed: Brothers Joseph- Bruno Gareau and Jules Chomienne. The chapter also revised the statutes according to the new Code of Canon Law, but this effected no important change in the form of government or in the nues. It chiefly consisted in introducing into the text of the statutes the rights, privileges, or obligations resulting fh>m the rescripts or indults obtainea from the Holy See since the primitive text of the statutes was confirmed by Pope Gregory XVI in 1839.
Among recent transfers and foundations of in- stitutions of the order were the establishment at Outremont. near Montreal, in 1915, of the scholas- ticate of tne Canadian province, and the transfer in 1921 of the novitiate of the French province of Rodez from Zarauz, Spain, to Escoriaza, Spain. In 1921,' Columbus College, Chamberlain. S. D., officially closed its career as an educational institu- tion, owing to the opening in September of the same year, of a new diocesan Catholic colle^ at Sioux Falls. S. D. The authorities of the institute trans- ferrea to Chamberlain, in the buildings of Columbus College, the novitiate of the American province heretofore located in Chicago; and in this place they opened a scholasticate for theoloracal stuaies. The Institute of the Clerics of St. Viator at present (192!2) controls 104 educational institutions of dif- ferent kinds and degeees: primary and secondary schools, classical and commercial colleges. It also has the care of 9 parishes in the United States and Canada. The Montreal Catholic Institution for Deaf Mutes (male) is under its direction. The deaf and dumb pupils cared for number 170. The following table supplies statistics of the institute:
Saint Vincent da Paul, Bbothers op, a congregation of priests and brothers living in community and con- secrating their lives to the service of the poor and workmen and the care of the needy in general. Tlie institute was founded in Paris in 18^ bv F^. Jean- JAon Le Prevost, one of the first collaborators of Frederic Osanam. It received the decree of praise, 10 May, 1869^ and papal approbation, 6 June, 1874; the constitutions were provisionally approve 13 February, 1906. The mother-house is m Toumav, Belgium, and the present superior general is It. Femand Desrousseaux, elected 1914, and re-elected 25 August, 1920. The institute is established in France, Belgium , and Canada. The principal Canadian foundation is at Quebec where there are a novitiate and juvenate, a school with 350 students, two societies for young people, an association for students, and a maison de famille where 50 orphans are taught trades. The procurator general resides at Rome, where there is a scholasticate.
Saints OyxU and Bffetliodiiis, Daitohtebs of, a congregation of religious women for the instniction of Slovak children, founded by Rev. M. Jankola and several other »lovak priests, who saw the mat necessity the Slovak people in America had of Catholic schools. The nrst three members were sent to Mt. St. Mary's, Scranton, Pa., where they re- mained for several vears under the kind direction of the Sisters of the Immaculate Heart of Mary. In the year 1909 their rule was approved by Pope Pius X, and on 11 September, 1909. the first three members pronounced the vows. As tneir numbers increased they were obliged to leave these Sisters, and assume the government of the institute theniselves. Ac- cordingly, they opened a mother-house in Middle- town, ana two years later it was moved to Danville, Pa . , to which is also attached a novitiate . In Middle- town thev have an orphanage. The congregation now numbers ri921) 83 professed Sisters, 22 novices, and 15 postulants. The Sisters have seven houses in the Scranton Diocese; 5 houses in the Harrisburg Diocese: and houses at Brid^port. Conn.; Gary, Ind.; Chicago, 111.; Vandergnft and Buffalo, N. Y.
Saints Vincent and Anastasins, Abbey Nuujtts OP (Sanctorum Vincentix bt Anabtash ad Aquas Salvias; cf. C. £., XIII— 380d), near Rome. The diocese of the abbey nullius, under the Reformed Cistercians, is at Orbetello, comprising several village and two small islands, divided into 8 parishes, administered by 50 priests. The abbey nulhus main- tains an elementary school, with 105 children taught by 5 Sisters, and a residence for the workmen con- nected with the jnonastery, who number 32 families and 48 unmarried. There is a religious association established among these workmen. Upon the death of Cardinal Ore^ia (3 December, 1913), the Holy Father appointed Rt. Rev. Andrea Caron, titular Bishop of Chalcedon, apostolic administrator of the spiritual needs of the diocese, 1 January, 1916. Rt. Rev. Leo Ehrhard, prior of the abbey, was dected abbot in November, 1919, and blessed 22 Januaxy, 1920.
B a l am a nra, Diocbsb of (Salakantinensib; cf. C. £., XIII— 391b)j suffragan of VaUadoUd, Spain. The present bishop is Mgr. Julio de Diego y Gturcia Alcolea. bom in tne Diocese of Sigiienza at Honta- nares 16 February. 1859, ordained 1881, dected bishop of Astorga 14 November, 1904, consecrated at Valladolid 5 February, 1905, transferred to Sala- manca 18 July, 1913, to succeed Mgr. Valdes y Noriega, deceased. A Eucharistic Congress was held in Salamanca, with representatives from every parish (20,000 in all), attenoing the notable discourses, ser-