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white and negro schools was $7,659,536.10 out of which was expended $5,894,917.43 for whites and $765,481.75 for negroes. The State per capita ex- penditure in 1920 was $26.08 for whites, $3.04 for negroes, $13.94 average for both races. There are 26 institutions of higher learning for whites and 10 for negroes. Of the 26 institutions for whites, 8 are nonH9ectarian and receive a total state support of $1,067,935.71; 7 are Presbyterian; 5 are Baptist; 3 are Methodist, and 3 are Lutheran. The Univer- sity of South Carolina has 47 officers and faculty, 579 students, and a total income of $240,184.37: Clemson Agricultural College has 170 officers and teachers, 1014 students, and an income of $388,422.- 57: The Winthrop Nonnal and Industrial College has 127 officers and an income of $680,798.49.

Reugion. — The following statistics are taken from the latest United States Census of Religious Denom- inations:



Methodist Episcopslians Colored, South .....




Universalist ,


A. R. Presbyterian. . . Catholic































For further religious and educational statistics, see Charleston, Diocese of.

Recent I^QiSLATioN and History. — During the governorship of Coleman L. Blease (1911-15) several conflicts took place between the executive and the judiciary and legislature. Governor Blease clashed with the State Supreme Court over judicial appoint- ments, refusing to commission any apj>ointees except his personal friends. He exercised his veto to an extraordinary degree, vetoing more bills in his tenp of office than his predecessors had in twenty years. He pardoned so many convicts that the prison popula- tion was depleted. He was nevertheless re-elected in 1912 and the following year revoked the com- missions of notaries public, state constables and officers in the State. On 11 January, 1915, he dis- banded the organized militia of the State and resigned the following day. His successor revoked the order of disbandment. Marriage licences were required by law in 1911, and regulations made for their in- surance. In 1912 electrocution was provided as a means of capital punishment. South Carolina voted for prohibition in 1915; in 1920 free tuition in the State institutions was given to ex-soldiers.

During the European War South Carolina contrib- uted 53,482 soldiers or 1.42% of the United States Army. The South Carolina members of the National Guard joined the 30th Division at Camp Sevier, South Carolina, and those of the National Army, the 81st Division at Camp Jackson, South Carolina. The summary of casualties among the South Carolina members of the American Expeditionary Force is as follows: deceased, 50 officers, 1088 men; prisoners, 2 officers, 14 men; wounded, 162 officers, 2603 men .

South DakoU (cf. C. E., XIV--160d) .—The area of the State is 77,615 square miles. In 1920 the population was 636^547, an increase of 9 per cent since 1910. Of this, 16% was urban; 84% was rural. The average number of inhabitants to the square mile is 8.3 as against 7.6 in 1910 and 5.2 in 1900. South Dakota has 68 coimties, 4 of which are unorganized. Since 1910 four new counties have been organized from 3 unorganized counties and parts of 2 organized counties. The largest cities are:

Sioux Falls, 26,202; Aberdeen, 14,537; Watertown, 9400. There are five Indian reservations, two of which comprise the 4 unorganized counties of the State. The native whites or native parentage num- ber 308,598; of foreign parentage, 141,341; of mixed parentage 86,817. The foreign bom (82,391) came chiefly from Norway (16,813), Russia (11,193), Germany (15,674), Sweden (8573). There are also 16,384 Indians. Among the population ten years of age and over (482,195), there are 8109 illiterates.

Economic Status. — ^The output of the farms of the state for 1919 is as follows: com 91,200,000 bushels, worth $108,528,000; wheat 30,175,000 bushels, worth $72,420,000; oats 53,650,000 bushels, worth $33,- 800,000; barley 19,250,000 bushels, worth $22,138,- 000: rye 6,500,000 bushels, worth $8,125,000; flax- seed 1,160,000 bushels, worth $4,930,000; potatoes 4,450,000 bushels, worth $8,550,000; hay 1,158,000 tons, worth $21,033,000.

The number of farms is 74,637 (34,636,491 acres), of which 1198 are irrigated. Agricultural products shipped out of the state in 1918 returned $270,536,- 000. In 1917 the State produced gold to the value of $7,364,233; lime, cement, and other minerals, also stone, $973,443; mica, $11,008: in 1919 the value of thegold produced fell to $5,267,600.

The latest census of manuJFactures gives the follow- ing summary: establishments, 1414; persons engaged, 9034; capital, $30,933,630; salaries and wages. $9,981,625; cost of materials, $42,985,870; value of products, $62,170,582. The pnncipal industries ranked by the value of their products are: butter- making, flour and grist mill products, bread and other bakery products, minting, publishing, news- papers and penodicals. The products of the cream- eries were valued at $10,806,000; of the flour mills, $8^73,000

The Constitution limits the bonded debt of the State to $100,000 over and above the debt of the territory of Dakota assumed by the State at its foimdation. The State at present has no bonded debt. The assessed value of real and personal property in 1919 was $1,846,456,090; of moneys and credits, $110,- 876,049; of corporate property, $137,802,039. The railroad mileage is 4278.

Education. — ^The laws governing private and paro- chial schools are as follows: All private school in- struction and all private instruction accepted in lieu of public school instruction shall first be approved by the county superintendent who shall exercise supervision over such schools and such instruction and shall exercise the right of visitation and inspec- tion thereof and may revoke his approval of such instruction at any time. Instruction shall be given in all common schools of the State, both public and private, in the English language only. Religion shall be taught in English. No person shall be per- mitted to teach in a private school any of the branches to be taught in the public schools unless such person shall hold a certificate entitling him to teach the same branches in the public schools of the state. All teachers in public and private schools must take oath of allegiance. No public appropriation to aid any sectarian school shall ever be made (VIII — 16) . Branches, to be taught in public and private schools are: reading, writing, orthography, arithmetic.

grimary language and English grammar. United tates and South Dakota history, ph3rsioIogy and hygiene^ civil government and drawing. Patriotic instruction shall be given one hour each week. School attendance is compulsory for all children be- tween the ases of 8 and 16 for the entire school term up to the 8tn ^ade After a child reaches the sixth grade, the period of attendance may be reduced to 16 continuous weeks. A child welfare commission was established i n 1919. Free tuition is given to