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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 17.djvu/716

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dOtrtHWA&fi:


700


SOVIET


war veterans in all state institutions. The popula- tion of school age numbers 211,870, of whom 144,441 (68.2%) are attending school.

About one-third of the school lands has been sold for the sum of $17,000,000 which returns an annual revenue of interest and rentals of over a million dollars. The expenditure for school purposes in 1020 was $11,620,117. Elementary and secondary education is free to all from 6 to 21 years of age. Between the ages of 8 and 16 it is compulsory on all not otherwise taught. In the 4749 elementary schools in 1920 there were 78,746 pupils and 4873 teachers; 421 secondary schools with 1018 teachers and 12,694 pupils. The government maintains three Inaian schools in the State at Flandreau, Rapid City, and Pierre. There are four normal schools, a school of mines, an agricultural college, and a university (60 instructors and 961 students). The agricultural college has 67 on its faculty and 1096 students (1918).

Religion. — The foUowingfigures are taken from the United States Census of Keligious Denominations (1916).


Denominations


Members


Adventists

Baptists

Catholios

Con^sregationalists

Disciples

Evan£elicals

Friends

German Evangelicals

Independents

Jews

Lutherans

Mennonites

Methodists

Presb3rterians

Protestant Episcopal Church

Reform Bodies

Salvation Army

Swedish Evangelical

United Evancelical Church . .

United Brethren

All other denominations . . . . Total


1,046

8.852

72.113

11,762

1,764

1,762

192

330

236

270

52.036

1,798

22,141

10,077

8.166

4.421

336

749

231

260

336

199,017


Chtirches


25

90

294

181

17

40

3

5

5

1

478

16

271

116

119

64

» « • •

19

5

7

7

1,766


For Catholic statistics see Sioux Falls, Diocese of; Lead, Diocese of.

Recent Legislation and History. — In 1911 the distribution of lands of the Sioux Indian Reservation was begun at Gregory. There were 4000 homesteads and 50;000 applicants. Provision was made for in- determmate sentence for criminals, the length of the sentence being determined by the Warden and Board of Charities and Corrections. In 1912 the new Richards Primary Law was adopted, so as to do away with party elections. In 1916 State-wide prohibition was s^opted. In 1917 the office of State Sherifif was created, the city manager plan of governing cities approved, a Workmen's Compensation Act adopted, and a school survey provided for. The Federal Suffrage Amendment was ratified on 4 December, 1919; the Prohibition Amendment on 20 March. 1918. In 1917 the South Dakota National Guard was called into Federal Service and entrained at Camp Greene, Charlotte, North Carolina. Accord- ing to the figures prepared by General W. A. Morris, South Dakota's contribution of men was as follows: voluntary enlistments, 10,268; selective draft, 21,517; navy and marine, 1006. A total of 141,243 regis- tered for the selective draft. South Dakota soldiers went over with the first contingents sent across aad continue to go at intervals until November, 1918, but as they were brigaded with no reference to states it is impossible to follow units to any extent; the veteran ^ Fourth South Dakota, however, was chiefly appor- tioned to the 146th, 147th, 148th Field Artillery, went to France in December, 1917, and January,


1918, and rendered valiant service. The summary* of casualties of South Dakota men in the American Expeditionary Force is as follows: deceased. 13 ofBcers, 541 men; prisoners, 16 men; wotmdea, 43 officers, 1254 men.

Sonthwark, Diocese of (Soxtthwarcensis: cf . C. E., XIV— 162d), suffragan of Westminster, Eng- land. The present incumbent is the Rt. Rev. Peter Emmanuel Ami^, who has administered the diocese since 1904. llie following clergymen and dis- tinguished la3rmen have died since 1921: Canon Thomas Scannell. joint author with Dr. Wilhelm of a manual of Catnolic Theology (Wilhelm and Scan- nell). He revised the "CathoHc Dictionary" and prepared the new edition (1918); Canon Halloran, who for sixty years was attached to the mission of Our Lady Star of the Sea. at Greenwich, London ^ S. E.; the Duke of Norfolk, well known for his munificent generosity to the Church and for his interest in and support of Catholicity. In 1918, twenty-four of the secular clergy of the diocese were serving as chaplains in the army and navy. Rt. Rev. Anthony Alphonse De Wachter, auxiliary to Cardinal Mercier^ was chai]ged with the spiritual interests of the Belgian war refugees. He resided at the bishop's house during the four and a half veais of his stay in England, the episcopal residence being

E laced unreservedly at his disposal and made the eadquarters for his work. As the diocese of South- wark was the nearest to .the seat of war, many hos- pitals were opened there which were faithfully at- tended by the priests of the diocese. In 1921 the diocese contained 674 parishes, 158 churches, 150 private chapels, 70 stations, 37 religious houses for men, 142 for women, 280 secular priests, 257 regulars, 9 homes for lay brothers, 1 seminary with 100 sem- inarians. The following colleges and schools exist in the diocese: 17 colleges for men, 200 teachers: 64 colleges for women, SX) teachers; 2719 boys and 7059 girls attend the various hi^ schools; 94 elemen- tary schools, 22,757 pupils; 2 mdustrial schools, 14 teachers; 20 Poor Law Schools. Elementary chools as well as Poor Law, industrial and reformatory schools receive Government appropriations . Charita- ble institutions in the diocese are: 3 homes, 5 hos- pitals, 2 refu^, 3 settlement houses, all of which admit the ministry of priests. The Catholic popula- tion of the diocese numbers 160,000. The Catnolic paper of the diocese is called the ^'oouthwark Record."' The following socieites have been established for the priests: the Apostolic Union and the Priests' Euchar- istic League. There are nine societies for the laity.

Sovana and Pitigliano, Diocese of (Soanenbis PrriLiANENSis; cf. C. E., XIV — 165b), in the pro- vince of Grosseto, Central Italy, suffragan of Siena, with the residence at Pitigliano. Mgr. Riccaido Carlesi, b. at Prato in 1869, came to the see 8 July. 1916, in succession to Bishop Cardella, who governed it from 1896 and died 6 February, 1916. The CathoUc population numbers 38,500. There are 48 parishes, and 78 churches and chapels served by 96 secular and 10 regular priests, 8 Brothers and 23 Sisters.

Sovlet^-The word is derived from the Russian, meaning Council, In the modem sense it is used to describe a form of revolutionary organization and is more specifically applied to the organization of the Communist governments which were set up in different countries during the years following the World War. Thus Soviet Governments were formed in Russia, Hungary, Georgia, Armenia, and Ukrainia. In Russian governmental law the word Soviet has been used in different ways since the