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ration of Church and State, although the final separa- ^*SiriHt^i!!lfc^^ l9WUiT^^lS!Si^

tion has not yet definitely taken place. The State, ti,iS2mc« (London, 1919); Pop*: SmrOuiSrin, OeeuUUm and

which is bound to compensate the Church, by reaflon the Catholie Church in Bed. Rev., LXIII (Philadelphia, 1920).

of the secularization, has been unable from technical gj^i 2,^^^J5li^sJ>S.^^^*g5S) ^p^oiZ'S^ R^

financial reasons to pay the indemnities. Conse- ^ |^ Commieeum ajtpoSued to inveeligate 'modem epirihiZem

quently the incomes of the benefices are supple- (Philadelphia. 1920).

mentea by voluntary contributions from the State, o«j-_ /»» x »^ /a \ ^ r^

which the latter has the power to withdraw at any ^ »»™ (Zm), I^jxaaB of (Sctpubibnsib).— cf . C.

moment. The bishops are also concerned with regard ?.».J/rr"^U^Vntn

to the salaries of the priests. They do not wish the ^ed 24 March, 1919, and was buned with pjat hongr.

clergy to be paid by the State, as in that case the He built an enturdy new home for ^e SistCTSof St.

Government would have control over them. The Vmcent de Paul of teutscbau, coUectmg for th^^

independence of the Church even in financial matters f^ more than 400,000 crowns, and also erected a

has been inaugurated by the religimsgeaellschafUiche S?*^,*^8 school for teachers. On 9 December, 1915.

freligio-social) tax lepslation, which grants the Marhn Khebench, domwUc pi^te, was pre^

Church the nght of tiication such as hai been the ^^^ ^i^op of Sabrata and appomted Aiu^aiy

case in Prussia during the past twenty years. The ?™oP <>' ^pisz, ihe first time such ui appointment

democratic Government has already granted some ™* ^?*^4? c^^J^ over one hundred veare.

privileges to the Church, such as the right to make Upon the death of Bulwp Parvi, Biahoi) Khebench

new foundations without the approval 6f the State. "^^ unammoualy elected BiAop of Spiss; but the

One of the most difficult problems of the future will be ^?^^y ^^^ repubhc of Caechodovakia having

the maintenance of denominational schools, the only »P? embraced, the entire diocese he remjmed the

privilege which the church has retained in regard bishopric, remainu^, however, auxihary bishop and

to the schools being the supervision and teachkig majOTmitPedpiOTcatof the ancient

of religious instruction. Thhae who wish to teacE Durmgthe World Warboth clergy and ^

this branch must have the Missio Cfinanica, without aamficedtheir wealth to tiieir country. The bi^pp

which a teacher cannot receive an appointment in wMgr JohnVojtassak. whowaschanceUorof the^

the denominational schools. The law m regard to ?^'7^^S?^f.^y^^f

the religious education of children will lead t5 many J*^^???• ^^ Cathohc popuktion of 2^,000w at-

evilresflts. Even a chUd of fourteen is now lawfully tjmded by 21W secular and 14 re^

able to withdraw from the Church Owins to the "v ° "^^ brotners. There are 166 parishes with 166

low value of the currency, it wiU be impossible to churches and 100 mission churches; 123 public cha

build churches as heretofore, which wirprove a I'^^I^JT?l"2.'*i^?'7rf^k^?*^^

drawback to the spiritual deveiopment of the people. ^^~^®^!!,."'? 21 students; .1 Catholic dady and 2

Before the war about 8,000,000 marks were annually ?.*^«' penodicals. The pnncipid rehpous orgamaj.

expended for this purpose, but now ten times that *^°^ ^5>^ ^*^® ^^^'f? » ^* ^^ ^amt Jos^E; 8udi

amount would not suffice associations among the laity are many and vaned.

ThP nrespnt innimhent of thf» diooeap ia thp Pt "^^ Government at present contributes generously

Re? IS^g k'bS, b. it1>^^ to the support of the Satholic institutions.

J5?2' SS^?.^ ^^ ^^?-i ^Sl' ®*^t^ i\ ^^y' Bpltiberg. See Norway, Vicariate Apostouc

1917. The diocese contams 243 panshes, 94 chap- qf.

laincies, 373 churches, 4 missions. There are about « ._ ^ « x „« 

1.000,000 inhabitants, four-fifths of whom are Cath- Spokane, Diocbbe op (Spokanbnsis).— This dio-

olics. The following clergymen and laymen of prom- cese was established on 17 December, 1913, and com-

inence have died smce 1912: Rev. Joseph Bischoff P"ses the following counties in the State of Wash-

(Conrad v. Bollanden), a writer of prominence; mgton: Oskanogan, Ferry, Stevens, Pend C^eiUe,

Rev. Jacob Frederick Bussereau, founder of the DouglM, Grant, Lincohi, Spokane, Adams, Wliit-

Congregation of St. Paul for men and women for the S^ij ,?cnton. Franklin. Walla Walla, Columbia,

care of the abandoned and destitute; Cardinal v. Garfield and Asotm, and covers 30,192 square miles

^resent administrator of ugustin F. Schinner, b. rdEuned 7 March, 1886,

loiiai msi/it^uxe lor nomeiess *'"^*"~;* *""v ^^^x^^ «^. ^^w^jronor, 13 May, 1905, conse-

boys. The zeal and activity shown by Bishop, crated 15 Julv, pubhshed 11 December following: he

now Cardinal, Michael von Faulhaber during the resigned 16 January, 1913, and was transferred 18

war is worthy of the highest praise. He forbade any March, 1914, published 28 May following. According

criticism of the bishops of the EntenU, visited the *? the statistics of 1922 the dhocese contains: 28,608

trenches at the risk of his own life, held conferences Catholics, including Irish, Germans, Itahans and

for the military chaplains and preached to them, apout 1500 Indians, 46 panshes, 97 churches, 51 nais-

In the beginning of the war seventy young prieste sions, 59 stations, 2 convente for men (Jesuits and

became chaplains and served in the hospitals. A Franciscans), 1 monastery for women (Poor Clares),

number of theological studente were killed and some 7 convente for women, 51 secular prieste, 39 regulars,

lost their vocation. The clergy who remained in ^2 Jesuit lay brothers, 1 Franciscan brother, 299

their parishes comforted the afficted, kept in com- ?!?*c" }^^o, t?ach m academies and parish schools,

munication with those at the front, tried, when Educational iiwtitutions m the diocese are: 1 uni-

possible, to procure food for the starving. Many of versity, 32 professors, 615 studente, 5 academies, 473

the church bells were taken by the Government. studente (35 boys and 438 girls); 1 normal school. 43

studente; 1 training school for nurses; 16 parochial


attend at spiritistic seances of any kind, even as a ^^: ^^^^ « Efcclesiastacal Society for aj«d and infirm

spectator, with a tecit or express protestetion against P"^**' ""°^ the Iwty: Cathohc Social Betterment

having any communication with evil spirite. ^^®*8"® ^^ .«evera^ 5^5S?^t o/ganixations. ^ A d»-

LILJENCRANT8. Spiritiem and Rehffion (New York, 1918); cesan magazine Called 'The Inland Empune Cathohc

CsA^rORO, The Reality of Peyehie Phenomena (London, 1017); Messenger" is published monthly.