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1866; studied at Figeac, Montfaucoa, and Cahors, farms in cultivation was 42S,75S, of which 120,78S

entered the Missions Etrang^res at Paris in August, were of 2 hectares and under; 270,511 of 2 to 20

1887; ordained on 21 Sept., 1889; set out for the hectares, and 34,883 above 100 hectares. The

Chinese mission three months later. Mgr. Rayssac harvest m Sweden was between 50 per cent and 75 per

was appointed vicar apostolic on 17 July, 1914, cent more abundant than normal, but the demand

and consecrated at Hong-kong on 3 May, 1915. was not equal to the supply. In order to allay the

From March, 1915, till February, 1917, he was discontent caused by the fact that laige quantities of

Apostolic administrator of Canton. He resides at foreign wheat was being imported, while Swedish

Swatow. The statistics of the vicariate for 1917 wheat was lying unbought, the government raised

recorded 22 European and 7 Chinese priests; 224 the duty on imported grain. In 1920, 286,535 tons

churches and chapels: 33,695 Catholics; 594 adult of wheat were produ^, 1,024,757 tons of oats,

baptisms, 3107 infant baptisms (1976 bemg of pagan 1,677,545 tons of potatoes, 3,599,014 tons of sugar

parentage); 77 confirmations; 5794 annual and 70,186 ' beet and fodder roots: and 4,499,896 tons of hay.

devotional confessions; 5208 Easter and 114,619 In 1919, the value oi all crops was estimated at

devotional communions; 76 bo3rs' schools with 1490 2145 million kroner (1 kronasS.268). The public

pupils; 12 girls' schools wiUi 497 pupils; 5 orphanages forests in Sweden (mostly on crown lands) have an

with 148 orphans. area of 8,193,981 hectares, and in 1918 yielded

The notable events in the vicariate since its erec- 5,636,240 cubic metres of timber. In the same year,

tion are as follows: In October, 1915, Father Louis 289,113 men, 50,516 women, 34,980 boys and 10,671

Etienne, when travelling to Swatow to report in girls (under 18 years of age) were employed in the

accordance with the French military law, was shot factories. On 15 July, 1921, the Sales Union which

and stabbed by brigands, but he recovered after had regulated the price of timber, was dissolved, and

eight months in a hospital at Hong-kong: in 1916 the ike sales of timber, which had shrunk to a low level.

Sisters of St. Paul of Chartres were withdrawn from improved. A new eight-hour week law went into

the vicariate; in 1917 the southern armies defeated the effect on 1 January, 1920. Foreign competition has

northern forces, but in June, 1918, Swatow was been severely felt m the iron and steel trade. About

recovered by the Pekin Government. A very violent 4,981,110 tons of iron ore were mined in 1919; of

earthquake occurred on 13 February, 1918, killing these, 2,418,989 tons were exported. Of the 493,701

hundreds in Swatow and on the island of Namoa. tons of pig iron mined in 1919, 81,578 tons were

In Swatow the Catholic church was badly shaken and exported. In Sweden^ 45,108 persons were engaged

is beyond repair, while in Chaochowfu the tower of in mining. The foreign trade of Sweden in 1920,

the beautiful church of Notre Dame AuxUiatrioe was included exports valued at £127.421,500 and imports

thrown down and the walls of the building split. valued at £187,415.833. At the end of 1919, the

railway mileage in Sweden was 9392, of which 3409

Sweden, (cf. C. E., XVI-^347a).— The area of the miles belonged to the state. The total revenue was

monarchy is 173,035 square miles and the population estimated at £71,926,310, the expenditure, £46,792,-

on 31 December, 1920, was 5,904,000, including 777. On 1 January, 1921, the total debt, chiefly

4.161,000 in the rural communes and 1,743,000 in contracted for productive purposes, was 1,270,440,927

the cities. kronor, or 217 kroner per head of the population

Education. — In 1919 there were 77 public second- (96 in 1910). The assets in the state were 1,207,-

ary schools with 27,384 pupils, 51 high schools with 806,233 kroner.

3486 pupils, 2 high and 7 elementary technical Dbfencb. — ^The military forces of Sweden are

schools with about 4000 pupils, 17,085 elementary recruited on the principle of universal suffrage. The

schools with 24.265 teachers and 706,841 pupils, and peace standing (1920) is about 86,507 men. The

5 navigation schools. Education is compulsory and Swedish navyis used entireljr as a coast defense force,

free, and children not attending the public schools Rbcent History. — During the World War,

must furnish proofs of being privately educated. Sweden maintained the strictest neutrality, although

There are 2 umversities at Upsala and at Lund, also its shipping suffered greatly from the submarines and

medical, philosophical, and law faculties at Stockholm the allied blockade. After the war, Sweden claimed

and Gdteoorg. the Alland Islands, which were, however, awarded

Social CoNnmoNS. — According to the Poor Law by the League of Nations to Finland. On 26 May.

'Ordinances issued in 1918, the communes are obliged 1919, the Swedish Parliament granted full national

to assist children imder 16 years of aoe, if necessary, suffra^ to women, who in 1909, had been given

and all those who are disabled from disease, old age, municipal suffrage. In June, 1919, the Swedish

and infirmity. In each commune, which constitutes Conness of Independent Socialists at Stockholm,

a poor distnct, there is a board of public assistances. votcS to join the Third International at Moscow

In 1919 a total of 256,441 received relief (140,973 in and adopted a resolution favoring Bolshevist prin-

.country parishes, 115,468 in towns). ciples. In 1920, a marriage law was passed depnving

Government. — Sweden * is a constitutional mon- the husband of personal guardianship over the wife

archy, with a King and a Parliament of two houses, and of legal rieht to dispose of the wife's property.

The King must be a member of the Lutheran Church. The wife could acquire property in her own right,

rand exercises his iM>wer in concert with the Council If both parties desired a divorce, no court action was

of State and the Ihet. The provincial administration required, the parties merely registered before a judge,

is entrusted in Stockholm to a High Governor and in and the marriage was automatically dissolved. A

each of the 24 governments to a prefect, who is trade agreement with Soviet Russia was signed in

nominated by the King. Ecclesiastical affairs and February, 1922. A consultative referendum on the

questions relating to the primary schools are desdt question of alcohol will take place in Au^^t, 1922,

with by the parish assemblies, presided over by the Sweden, Vigabiatb Apostolic of, is under the

pastor of the parish. guidance of Mgr. Albert Bitter, titular bishop of

Reliqion. — ^The mass of the population belong to Doliche. He was bom in 1848 at Melle, in the

the Lutheran Church, recognized as the State religion, diocese of Hildesheim, was ordained in 1874, and

There are 12 bishoprics, and 1587 parishes (1920). spent his early priestly life as a missionary in Sweden,

Upsala is the metropolitan see. The deigy are chie^ first in Stockholm and then in Gdteborg. Later he

supported from the parishes and proce^ of churda went to Mecldenbuig and returning to Sweden was

lands. The Jews number about 6000. raised to the episcopacy and appomted vicar apos-

EcoNOMic CoNDmoNB. — In 1919 the number of telle 1893. To his apostolic labors is largely due