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SWEBENBO&aiAKB 712 SWITKSBIiAKD

the sure if slow progress of the Church of Sweden. According to the census of 1 December, 1920, the

Although liberty of conscience has not yet been for- number of Protestants amounted to 2,218,589

mally proclaimed in the Swedish Constitution, it is a (57 per cent of the population), of Catholics, 1,&B6,-

practii^ fact; religious orders are allowed to develop 826 (41 per cent), and of Jews, 20,955 (2 per cent),

without government interference and the Sisters of The Protestants are in a majority in twelve cantons,

St. Josepn and the Grey Sisters of Breslau conduct and the Catholics in ten. Of the more populous

several schools there. In 1921. the first Catholic cantons, Ziirich, Bern, Vaud^ NeuchAtel, and Bafile

daily.theCredo".waspublishedDythe same publish- are mainly Protestant while Luzem, Friboun,

ers wno had issuea a Catholic review of that name two Ticino, Valais, and the Forest Cantons are mainly

years earlier. Statistics for 1921 give 15 priests, 17 Catholic. The Jesuit order and its affiliated societies

churches and chapds, 5 stations and a Catholic cannot be received in Switzerland, and the foundation

population of 2558. of new convents and religious orders is forbidden.

^ The Catholic population is is governed by the sees

Swedenborgians.^!. General Convention of the of Basle and Lumno, Chur, St. Gall, Lausanne

New Jerusalem in the United States of America, and Geneva, and sion.

In 1912 a very complete Book of Worship was Government. — ^The constitution of 29 May,

adopted by the General Convention. In recent 1874, which is still in force, provides for a President

years this sect has suffered a decrease in nearly all and Vice-President, elected for one year, and a

particulars. In 1921 it reported 101 churches, 99 Parliament of 2 Chambers, a Standerat or State

ministers and 6519 members. Council, and a Nationalrat or National Council.

II. General Church of the New Jerusalem. This The first is composed 9f 44 members, two for each

sect centers its main energies on the religious edu- canton and the Nationalrat has 189 members,

cation of children through the three parochial chosen by the people^ one for each 20.000. The

schools which it supports. Its higher educational executive adnunistration of the Confederation is

center is at Bryn Athyn, Pa^ where also an experi- divided mto 7 departments, each of which is under

ment at reviving the medieval guilds was attempted the direction of a member of the Federal Councfl.

in the erection of a stately cathedral under the When busmess relative to a particular department is

direction of Ralph Adams Cram. The guild experi- considered m the legislature, the Councillor who

ment was not entirely successful and the architect, manages that department attends, answers quMtions,

Mr. Cram, withdrew from the undertaJdng. gives explanations, fmd joms in debate.^ Beside

Foreign missionary work is carried on in Sweden, its general admmistrative (mcluding financial) work,

Belgium; France, Switzerland, South Africa, Brazil, the charge of foreign relations wid of the army, the

and Caiada. There were in 1916, 6 staUons, 5 Council superyis^ ihe conduct of ^e permanent

American missionaries, 5 churches and 310 mem- Jivd service of the Confederation. By tiie law of

bers. In 1921 they reported in the United States ip the Denartmentof Foreim^airs^w^^

15 churohes, 35 ministeis, and 733 members, show- charge of the President of ^e Council and which

ing a sUght decrease in members since 1912. was changed every year, became penmment uid

Rdigiou9 BodisM. 1916 (Washington, 1919); Year Book of Ou compnsed three sections: VIZ. *oreim Affairs, In-

ChunhM (New York, annual). temal Affairs and Commerce. The mitiative

N. A. Webbb. and referendum prevails, but is seldom used, only

three times on 62 laws paffied between 1905 and 1919.

Swltserland (cf. C. E., XIV — 358a), a federal Three of the cantons are politically divided — ^Basle

republic in Central Eurone, divided into 22 cantons, into Stadt and Land; Appenzell into Ausser Rhoden

three of which are divided into half cantons. On and Inner Rhoden, and Unterwald into Obwald and

I December, 1920, the area was 15.976 square miles Nidwald. Each of these parts of cantons sends one

and the population 2,861,508. According to the member to Uie State Council. In 1919 a new group

1910 census the inhabitants of Switzerlimd were of Peasants, Artisans^ and Boureeois won 26 seats in

classified by native tongue as follows: 2,594,186 the National Council. A Civu Code, combining

spoke German, 793,264 spoke French; 302,578, the old Teutonic customary law with tne principles

Italian; 23,031 spM>ke other languages. The number of modem French law was enacted in 1912. A penal

of foreigners resident in Switzerland in 1920 was code is being prepared (1919).

412,306. In 1919 there were 74,205 births, 30,731 Education.— The statistics for 1918 give 302

marriages, and 57 deaths and still births. The kindergartens, 4229 primary schools with 13,371

number of emi^;rants in 1920 was 9276. The lar^t teachers and 555.353 pupils, 527 secondary schools

cities with theu: respective populations are: Zurich, with 49,170 pupils, and 1877 teachers, 128 middle

206,120; Basle, 135,385; Bern, 103,385; St. Gall, schools with 26,608 pupils and 1708 teachers. There

69,733; Lausanne, 67,858. With the exception of are also special schools and seven universities. The

the Moravians and two Lutheran parishes in Geneva, Academy of NeuchAtel was transformed into a uni-

all the Protestants of Switzerland belong to the versity m May, 1909, but without the faculty of

Evangelical Church. The great majority of these medicme.

belong to the "National Churehes," organized accord- Social Conditions. — ^There is a Federal Insurance

ing to cantons. There are differences in details in Law, entitling all Swiss citizens to insurance against

the constitutions of these cantonal National Churches, illness and accident (passed in June, 191 1) . Accident

Besides these there are also large independent Prot- insurance is obligatory in industrial establishments

estant Churches and Evangelical sects of the most imder the Federal Liability Law and is adminis-

varied kinds. In the census the Old Catholics are tered by the Swiss Accident Insurance Institution,

not counted as independent confessions, but are On 31 December, 1919, the prison population con*

enumerated among the Catholics. In addition to sisted of 3187 of whom 400 were women,

the Old Catholic bishop, the Christian Catholic Economic Conditions. — Agric^^JBre. — ^It is esti-

National Church is administered by a national synod mated that there are 250,000 separate fanning prop-

which meets annually; besides the Old Catholic erties averaging less than 15 acres in size, oy far

priests and the bishop, its membership includes dele- the greater part of which are occupied and worked by

gates elected by the parishes. The Swiss Jews are the owner or members of his family. In 1920, the

united for wonmip into several communities, which production was as follows: wheat, 97,600 metric

are organized in accordance with the laws of the tons; oats, 45,200 metric tons; potatoes, 768,700

Confederation for associations. metric tons; rye, 37,2(X) metric tons. According to