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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 17.djvu/73

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Later the Supreme Court held that only three could be submitted at one time. Among the amendments which passed at a later time were a child labor law (1914) and a publicity act, subsidizing the press through public advertising. State-wide prohibition became effective in 1915, although a prohibition law initiated in 1912 had been rejected. In the same year a drastic inheritance law and a minimum wage law were passed. A primary election law was adopted in 1916, and also an amendment rais- ing the limit of the school tax to 12 mills. The proposed new constitution formulated in the con- stitutional convention of 1918, failed to pass. The year 1919 was unique, for there were three sessions of the Legislature and the fourth was called before the year was out. The emergency highway legisla- tion of the second session was invalidated by the Supreme Coiut on the ground t^iat the provision requiring the publication of intention to apply for special acts had not been complied with. This deiiciency waef remedied by a third session. In 1919 the Arkansas Corporation Commission was created, with jurisdiction over public utilities. In the same year the State ratified the prohibition amendment (14 January) and the suffrage amend- ment (28 July).

Armagh, Archdiogbsb of (Armaganbnsib; cf. C. E., L-729d). is the primatial see of Ireland, its archbishop oearing the title "Lord Primate of all Ireland." The present incumbent, His Eminence Michael Cardinal Logue, who came to this see in 1887, is the first Primate of Armagh to become a member of the Sacred College. On 23 May, 1920, the beatification of Oliver Plunket, Primate of Armagh 1669-81, took place in Rome, and religious celebrations of the event were held throughout Ireland. On 6 October following the relics of the blessed martyr were translated from the sarcophagus in which they had neposed, to a beautiful shrine prepared for them in Downside Abbey. The fol- lowing November Cardinal Logue received the De- cree of the Sacred Congregation of Rites dated 30 June, 1^20, authorizing the translation of the relic of the head of Blessed Oliver Plunket from the Dominican Convent to the Oliver Plunket Memorial Church, St. Peter's, Drogheda. On 3 October, 1920, the cardinal laid the comer-stone for the new church of the Immaculate Conception in Tully- saron, this diocese. By decree of the Sacred Con- gregation of the Consistory 14 January, 1922, Rt. Kev. Patrick OTDonnell, Bishop of Raphoe, was made titular Bishop of Attalia and coadjutor to Cardinal Logue, with right of succession.

By the 1911 census the total population of this diocese is 137,595 of whom 127,729 are Catholics. By 1921 statistics there are 66 parishes, 153 secular, and 21 regular cler^, 144 churches, 13 convents of nuns with 124 religious, 3 monastic houses with 17 religious. The religious orders of the diocese in- clude: Male: Franciscans, Carmelites, Jesuits, Christian Brothers of Ireland and De La Salle Brothers. Female: Sisters of Loretto, of the Pre- sentation, and Mercy. The charitable institutions and societies include an asylum for infirm priests, cripples' house. Total Abstinence Society, 4 Soci- eties of St. Vincent de Paul, 4 confraternities of the Holy Family, 5 confraternities of the Holy Rosary and associations in honor of the Sacred Heart.

Armeiila (cf. C. E., I~736a), a mountainous dis- trict of western Asia, at present divided between the Turks and Russians, excepting the Zanghezur district which has not been occupied. Before the European War the term Armenia was indeterminate,

bein^ sometimes applied to the territory in the Turkish Empire occupied by the Armenians, some- times to the whole country in which the Armenians were the dominant race element, and which was partly in Russian territory. The territory as con- stituted by the Treaty of Sevres and as delimited by ex-President Wilson of the United States, has an area of 80,000 square miles and contains the south- eastern frontiers of the Transcaucasian division of the Russian Empire, besides the ethnically Armenian regions of the vilayets of Van, Erzerum, Bitlis, and Trebizond in Asiatic Turkey. The frontier thus defined begins at Treboli, 50 miles west of Trebizard on the Black Sea, crosses west of Erzinjan, and then curving eastwards, skirts the northern slopes of Armenian Taurus, south of Mush, Bitlis, and Lake Van, and ends on the Persian frontier. The statis- tics of the six Armenian provinces of Turkey com- piled in 1912 by the Armenian Patriarchate of Con- stantinople are as follows:

Turks t


Mussulman races


Nestorians, etc. .

Greeks, etc


Zazas, etc

Yezidis ,


Per cent

666,000 424,000




42,000 140,000




25.4 163 3.4 38.9 43 1.6 53 2.9 1.4


It is estimated that the Armenians once numbered over twenty millions and the steady reduction of the population in modem times must be attributed almost entirely to the Turkish persecution in one form or another. During the war and as a result of the deportations and massacres of 1915, Lord Bryce estimated in 1916, that of a total of Armenian population in Turkey of about 1,800,000 before the war, 600,000 were massacred, 600,000 were deported, 300,000 remained in Armenia, and 300,000 survived in Constantinople, Smyrna, and other parts of Tur- key or in adjoining territories as refugees. Of the 600,000 who were stated to have been deported to Mesopotamia in 1915, the latest estimate received from Aleppo (Decemb r, 1918), puts the number of survivors at only 90,000. The total population of United Armenia in its widest extent would be about 8,000,000. The chief towns of Russian Ar- menia are Erivan with about 90,000 inhabitants, Alexandropol, 50,000; Kars, 35,000. The Supreme Council at San Remo in April, 1920, decided to internationalize the port of Batum and make it a common outlet for Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia.

Education. — Measures for nationalization were taken after the separation from Russia and Ar- menian became the official language of the schools. A system of compubory education was established and the old church seminaries and technical schools continue their work.

Economic Conditions.— The first railway dates from 1900, and in 1920 the mileage was 370 miles. The Turkish system of land tenure did not recog- nize the right of the Christian Church to hold land, and consequently the Armenian Church has often been dispossessed of its property, which in any case may be held by trustees. Turkish taxation falls much more heavily upon the Armenian than upon the Mohammedan population. Apart from racial