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Mary Ignatius of Jesus, the first house in America The congregation numbers 230 professed Sisters, being established at Belle Prairie, Minn. In 1880 70 novices, and 40 postiilants. the mother-house was established in Rome. Mother Felician Sisters, 0. S, F, See under Felician Mary Ignatius died in 1894 and was succeeded as Sistees

superior by Mother Mary of the Angels, during Third Order of Our Ladt of Mount Carmel whose term of office an orphanage for colored children (cf. C. E.. XIV— 637d). A good deal of discussion was opened in Savannah, Ga. (1897) and another has recently taken place on the origin of Uie Third c^hanage opened in Jersey City, N. J. (1898). Order, but no definite result has been arrived at. With the permission and approval of the Sacred Fr. Gabriel Wessels (Analecta Ordinis Carmelitarum, Ck)ngregation of Propaganda a house was opened in vol. Ill, 259 sqq.) is of opinion that until the end of Fayum, Upper Egypt, m 1899. A flourishing school the fifteenth century there was no real distinction is now carried on there for the instruction of children between the convents of the Second and Third of Coptic and Mahonunedan parents as well as those Orders, in other terms that the distinction arises few of Catholic parentage. On the expiration of the from the stricter or less strict observance of enclosure term of Mother Mary of the Angels. Mother Mary and other points of the rule, and as this distinction Antonia was elected superior general in 1900. She resulted chiefly from the Tridentine legislation the died in 1901 and was succeeded by Mother Mary division woula seem to be even somewhat later than Columba. During the twelve years of her administra- stated by this accurate and cautious observer. A tionnewhouses were opened in Augusta, Ga. (1901), new rule for the Tertiaries of the Discalced Car- Boston (1902), West Hoboken. N. J. (1904), Cairo, melities living in the world was approved by the Holy £g3mt (1907), New Castle, Penn. (1908), Bronx, See6 March, 1921.

N. Y. (1909), Belle Prairie, Minn. (1911), Brooklyn, Benedict Zimmerman. .

N. Y. (1911), Chicago, lU. (1911), Newton, Mass. .^. ^ ^ ^ « c , r,,i. .. ^^

(1912), Montreal, Canada (1912), Pittsburgh, Penn. 'W^d Orders, Sbculab.— Secular Third Orders (1912). The first convent erected in Belle Prairie are composed ordinarily of lay persons, known as was maliciously destroyed by fire and the new con- tertianes, who ama at Christian perfection by follow- vent erected in 1911. At the general chapter of the PK, a rule approved for them by the Holy See, em- institute held in Rome, July, 1913, Mother Mary bodying the spint of a particular rehgious order Agnella was elected superior general. During her as far as that is compatible with their condition as term of office 3 new houses were opened: Damanhour, lajr people. The permission of the Holy See is re- Egypt (1913), Rockford, 111. (1915), Philadelphia, ^^^^ before a thnrd order can be estabhshed, and Penn. (1918). Mother Mary Agnella died in 1921. tbis has been granted to the Premonstratensians, Mother Mary Benignus, the present superior general, Dommicans, Fnars Mmor, Carmehtes, Augustinians, was elected in July, 1919. In September of that year Minims, Servites, and Trinitarians, while the Ben- a settlement house was opened in Syracuse, N. Y. ©dictines have their oblates who resemble the terti- In January, 1920, a mission was opened at Chester, aries. While religious of these orders can enroll Penn., and in February, 1921, a home for Italian individual tertiaries, permission of the local ordinary children was opened in Jamaica Plain. Mass. The » necessary for the erection of a sodahtv of the third Convent of Our Lady of the Angels in Tenafly , N. J. , order, and special permission is needed if the members which was opened on 16 June, 1921, serves as a sum- ^"^ ^ wear a distinctive habit while assisting at mer home for the Sisters and is the seat of publication sacred functions. No one who has made vows in of their periodical "Annals of Our Lady of the An- any religious institute can belong to a third order, gels." A branch novitiate was established in Boston except by special permission of the Holy See, even m 1903 and transferred to Newton, Mass., in 1912. though he had been a tertiary before makmg his The present number of mission houses is 21. The vows; however, if he is freed from his vows Mid congregation comprises 190 professed Sisters, 14 nov- returns to the world, his tertiarian membership ices and 9 postulants revives. No one may be a member of two third

Pdish Franciscan ' School 5i«tera;— This con- orders; though for good reason a tertiary may pass gregation has its mother-house at St. Louis, Mo., from one order to another, or from one sodahty to and its novitiate at Ferguson, Mo., the new site for another m the same order. Tertianes may be, but the novitiate having been purchased in 1921. The are not obliged to be. present as a body at public present superior general is Mother Hilaria. The religious offices, but if they do take part they must congregation numbers 116 professed relijtious, 12 wear their insignia aiid have their own cross; they novices, and 8 postulants, with 19 foundations. do not share in the indulgences granted to the first

Franciscan SisUrs of the Sorrouftd Mother. See and second oiders, except by special indult. A general Sorrowful Mother, Sisters op the plosmng or deprecative absolution with a plenary

Bemardine Sisters of St, Francis. These Sisters indulgence annexed may be given pubhcly to all have their mother-house and novitiate at Read- tertianes on stated feasts, when they assemble for ing, Penna. They were founded in 1894 by Mother that purpose; if the priest whose office it is to give Weronica Grzedowska who with three Sisters came it is absent, any pn^t, secular or regular, who is to America from Zakliczyn in Poland, having been authorised to hear confessions may bestow it; further- sent by the Bishop of Tamowa. The Sisters opened more, the blessing may be received nrivately from « small parochial school at Mt. Carmel, Penna., where any confessor after sacramental absolution on any they remained for one year. In 1895 they established of the specified feasts or the preceding day, and in the mother-house at Reading, Penna., and the novi- case of Franciscan tertianes on any day also withm tiate was opened there in 1901. In 1912 Mother the octaves ofthe feasts.

HedwiK Leszczynska, the present general superior, flgjfy"^"™"^^^** ^^- ^' ""' ^^•^°"' ^®^^^- succeeded Mother Weronica. The latter died in

1916. The aim of the congregation is to teach in Thirlon, Julibn, scientist, b. at Sclayn, Namur, parochial elementary and hi^er schools and to take Belsium, in 1852; d. on 23 February, 1918. He care of orphans. At present the Sisters have 42 studied at Namur and at the age of twenty entered schools scattered throughout the States of Pennsyl- the Society of Jesus; during his course of training he vania, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. They also specialized in mathematical physics and subsequently have charge of St. Francis Orphan Asylum, Reading, he was sent to Louvain to supervise the scientific Penna., incorporated 1905, and the St. Stanislaus training of the young Jesuits. As early as 1880 he Orphan Asylum, Nanticoke, Penna., opened in 1919. had contributed a number of historical astronomical