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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 17.djvu/76

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AfilA 60 AfilA

Indies, 10^42; Hong Kong and Straits Settlements, administered territory and the native states of 366,145; India, 20,980; Palestine, 85,000; Persia, Kalat and Las Bela.

40,000; Russia in Asia, 76,262; Turkey in Asia, i4/(7/ia7ii8ton, an hereditary monarchy with foreign 177,500. Previous years give 59,235 Jews in Meso- policy under control of the British Government of potamia, 77,458 in Asia Minor, 130,000 in Arabia, India. Relations with India are strained, as a re- and 20,000 in Bokhara. The Chinese "Year Book" suit of the war between the countries in 1919. enumerates 600 Jews in China. Bolshevik influences are feared here as well as in

Political Gboqrapht and Recent Histoet. — ^In Persia, India, and China, because of proximity to the following paragraphs are briefly given note- Rusaan Bolshevism.

worthy historical facts of recent years and the Persia, a monarchy, whose unstable government present status ^f each Asiatic countiy. made necessary the intervention of Great Britain

Siberia, formerly part of the Russian Empire, now and Russia, resulting in the Anglo-Russian treaty under the Russian Bolsheviks, except Vladivostok, of 1907 according to which both powers agreed to where Japanese troops remain in occupation. After respect the integrity and independence of Persia, the Russian revolutionary outbreak in 1917, various while controlling her sources of revenue. During independent "governments" arose in Siberia, a con- the war German influences fomented disorders in stitutional government being finally established at Persia, though she maintained neutrality through- Omsk in 1918, under the presidency of Admiral out. British and Russian troops opposed the Polchak. This was recognized by the Allied and Turkish invasion of Persia in 1918. The dissolution Associated Powers, but was attacked by Bolshevik of the Russian Empire aroused efforts in Persia forces in 1919, removed to Irkutsk, and was over- towards genuine independence, and in 1918 she de- thrown in 1920, Kolchak being executed. clared the Anglo-Russian treaty null and void. In

China, formerly an empire, declared a republic 1919 by the Treaty of Teheran, Persia accepted in 1912 and distracted by civil war since 1917. She British co-operation in the administration of her entered the war in 1917 on the side of the Entente, government, construction of her railwa3rs, revision refused to sign the Treaty of Paris, which acceded of her tariff, and maintenance of order by a force Japanese rights in Shantung, and concluded a sepa- of military police. In 1920 Bolshevist forces threat- rate peace with Germany. In 1920 a severe drought ened the country.

caused the complete failure of the harvest in a Arabia, a pemnsula in great part desert land oc- large area, resulting in famine in the latter months cupied by Bedouin tribes, with oases and coastal of the year and in 1921. Hongkong belongs to districts populated by settled peoples, politically Great Britain, Macao to Portugal, and ICwang Chau divided as follows: On the west coast, the kingdom Wau to France. of Hejaz (former Turkish principality, which at-

Japan, an Empire, including Korea and Formosa, tained its independenpe during the war [1916] and with mandatory over Shantung. This disputed ter- where are situated Mecca and Medina, the holy ritory was wrested by Japan from Germany in places of Islam), the principate of Asir and the 1914, and according to a treaty with China in 1915 imamate of Yemen; in the south, the British pro- was to be restored to Chinese sovereigntv. Failure tectorate Qf Aden and the province of Hadramant, to do this, and other alleged encroachments of mostly desert waste ; on the east coast, the sultanate China's rignts, have aroused much bitter feeling of Oman, the maritime district of the emirate of in China towards Japan. The race question has Nejd and Hasa, and the sultanate of Koweit; in been an issue between the United States and Central Afabia, the emirate of Nejd and Hasa and Japan. Universal suffrage in the Empire has been the emirate of Jebel -Shammar; the emirate of seriously debated, with no definite outcome as yet. Kerak is Transjordania.,

The budffet for 1921 included enormous sums for Mesopotamia, a state independent of Turkey naval and military expenditure, this arousing much since 1920, under mandate of Great Britain, unfavorable comment from other powers. Japanese Palestine, a state independent of Turkey since activities in the war were mostly local, including 1920 under mandate of Great Britain, comprising intervention in Siberia in 1918 and the seizure of the districts of Jerusalem, Jaffa, Gaza, Beersheba, Shantung in 1914. Samaria, Phoenicia, and Galilee.

Siam, an independent monarchy. Syria, a state independent of Turkey since 1920,

French Indochina, a French dependency, com- under mandate of France, prising the colony of Cochin China, the protec- Armenia, independent state comprising the vila- torates of Annam, Cambodia, Tonking, and Laos, yets of Erzerum, Trebizond, Van and Bitlis, with pnd the territory of Kwang Chau Wau, leased from boundaries to be determined by arbitration between China. She contributed money and supplies as the United States and Turkey. Armenian massacres well as troops to France during the war. Recent were one of the horrors of the war. judicial and legislative reforms and educational Kurdistan, an antonomous state since 1920. progress are noteworthy. Smyrna, chief seaport of Asia Minor, with some

Nepal, an independent kingdom in the Himalayas, hinteriand, formerly Turkish, is under Greek man-

Bhutan, an independent state in the Himalayas, date for five years, when the inhabitants will decide

India (Portuguese), the four provinces of Goa, by plebiscite whether to be annexed to Greece or Damao, Diu, and Timor. to remain under Turkish sovereignty.

India (French), the five provinces of Pondicheny, Asia Minor or Anatolia, the extreme western Karikal, Chandemagar, Mahe, and Yanaon. peninsula of Asia, belonging to Turkey.

India (British), an empire of the British Crown, Straits Settlements, a colony of the British Crown, administered by a governor-general. The Govern- comprising Singapore, Penang, and Malacca, ment of India Act of 1919 granted the natives a Malay States comprise Johore, Kedah, Pedis, greater representation in the government, and Kelantan, and Trengganu, and the Federated Malay greater provincial autonomy was forced by the ap- States of Perak, Selangor, Negri Sembilan, and pointment of five new provincial governors to take Pahang — all under British protection, office in December, 1920, and January, 1921. India Islands. — Cjnprus, Ceylon, Bahrein Islands, British sent troops to the European battlefronts and fought North Borneo, Sarawak and Brunei in Borneo, actively m the Turkish campaigns. Perim, Sokotra, Kuria Muria, Andaman, Nicobar,

Baluchistan, a country comprising British and Laccadine, and Keeling Islands, belonging to Great