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TX7T 746 TWILIGHT 8LBEP

was infonned that such occupation would continue directly result from it are (1) danger to the life of

until the terms of the Peace Treaty were fulfilled, the mother, (2) and of permanent and serious injury

Seeing the impossibUity of carrying out the terms to the mother, (3) danger to the life of the child, and

without prolonged opposition the allies modified the (4) of serious and permanent injury to the child,

terms of^the treaty m a conference at London in There are times wnen dangerous treatments and

February, 19^1. Greece, however, insisted on im- operatbns may be used as the only alternatives of

posing the terms of the Sevres Treaty, so favorable saving the life of a patient. Under such conditions

to her, on the Nationalists and commenced to do so a risk may be taken or a part may be amputated to

by force. save the whole. But in the application of twilight

Kemal, the Nationalist leader, headed the forces sleep the lives of two persons are involved, that of

fighting the invading Greeks in Asia Minor. the child and that of the mother. Moreover, the

child has ibe same claim to life that the mother has.

Tny, Diocese of (Ttjdensis; cf. C. E., XV — A double effect follows from the operation: (1) 105a), in the province of Pontevedra^pain, suffragan the prevention of pain on Uie part of the mother, of Compostelfo. This see is filled by Kt. Rev. Manuel and (2) the four dangers |^ven above. Under such Tago y Gonzalez, bom in the city of Tuy, in 1865; circumstances the good duectiy intended must be he made his studies at the seminary there and later proportioral to the evil effects which follow. In served as a professor of Greek, Hebrew and theology, twiu^t sleep any one of the evil effects is more than was ordained in 1888, made secretary to the Bishop sufficient to offset the good which is sought and of Lugo in 1896, named a canon the same year and therefore the operation is morally wrong, raised to tiie rank of theological canon in 1904. He To further understand the difficulties which may was appointed Bishop of Osma 25 Aufipst, 1909, and arise in this matter we must recall that the advocates transferred to Tuy 4 May, 1917. He is a member of of twilight sleep jxropoeed it as a treatment in normal the royal academy of histor^r. The diocese, whidi childbirth; in their opinion it was to have a universal covers an area of 766 square miles embraces a Catholic application . When we consider its puipoee and the population of 278,540. It comprises (1920 statistics) evus which were necessarily connected with it we 277 parishes divided among 15 archpresbyteries, 504 must condemn the movement as unethical. In priests, 90 seminarians and 25 convents with 125 isolated esses where the life of the mother is en- religious and 357 Sistens. dangraied b]^ some organic trouble, remedies may be

usecL even if they indirectly threaten the life of the

Twilight Sleep is a treatment to bring about pain- child or injury to the child. Dr. De Lee, in his

less childbirth. In 1847 James Y. Simpson in latest book on obstetrics (1920), claims that even

Engird used ether and chloroform in onstetrical with improvements 'Vhile the life dangers to the

practice, but little pro^press was made until 1902 mother can be eliminated, the patient must be wiUirg

when the German physician, Steinbuechel, introduced to pay the price of poeeible lacerations and hem-

a method in which the expectant mother was in a orrhage, and the occasional loss or injury of the child

state of quietude and rest similar to that of a gentle as the cost of her relief from suffering." Under these

sleep, hence the name Twilight Sleep. This state conditions the 'remedy may not be used in normal

of unconsciousness was brought about by the use of pregnancy.

a drug called scopolamine and doses oi morphine. During the past six years other methods of painless

The first was us^ to intensify the action of the childbirtn have been advocated, among them the

morphine, which had the tendency to prevent use of nitrous oxid-oxygen. It is claimed for this

pain. Dr. Charles Green of Harvard, Dr. Williams treatment that it relieves the pains of childbirth and

of Johns Hopkiiis, Dr. Joseph De Lee of North- in no way injures or endangers either mother or

western University, Chicago, and many other eminent child. More tnan a hundred cases were taken care

specialists in obstetrics, after studymg the process of in the Presbyterian Hospital, Chicago. But a

scientifically and observing it in many actual tests prominent physician of Chicago who had followed

abandoned the treatment. Dr. De Lee inspected the above cases wrote: "The method, while perfectly*

the methods as applied in maternity hospitals in safe, was abandoned because it was cumoersome,

several of the larger cities of Germany and found could be used only in a hospital and was enormously

that the treatment nad been rejected by the physicians expensive. . . . The results did not show the

who had formerly advocated it and who had studied slightest improvement in any way over the time

it under the most favorable conditions. In the honored method of a few drops of chloroform or

United States the subject was brought to the atten- ether at the beginning of each pain in the late stage

lion of the general public by articles in some of our of labor."

popular magazines; but little of the information The difficulty in pronouncing on the ethical solution

given there was reliable. "The merits and dis- of such operations is that they are new and the data

advantages of this treatment have been fully dis- furnished may not always be reliable. But the prin-

cuased lK>th medically and popularly to the fullest dples which should guide one are of easy application,

extent, but its use has been lar^ly ^scontinued by jf^ ag jg claimed, these various methods do not injure

Amencan obstetncians. There w a distmct risk to ^y^^^ ^^ mother and at the same time reUeve the pain

the child. The lyrcentage of stUl births IS mci^d of the mother they may be used. If the operation is

^^ptySa'Msle^ A'^^ -"^^ twib^ht sleep the na^does not affect the

tive/' 1920) . "The violence aiid uncertainty ofthe remedy; nor does it make the first method and motive

whole treatment, the general bad impression given of the movement moral.

op paUentS wno are Oemg laugni to approacn York, 1919); McClur^** MagoMine (June. 1911); D» Lm,

the 'horrors of labor m fear and trembung constitute 7*^ i^neiiiU and Pnetice ofObtutria (1920); Babmm, TwOiakt

so severe an arraignment of this treatment of labor Siitp, A report of 30 cases »nd » stumnwy of 6675


we W hith.^ given morphine and .tropin" ij^f!^:]l'!^J^^:W^^ii^4^.i':^

(Dr. Joseph L. Baer). ^ ChiUarimk and Bulocia and NitrauB OMOxygen Anaigatia

The primary reason for the treatment is the pre- (Chkago. 1910). ,, ^ ^

vention of pain in childbirth. The effects which Henbt 8. Spaldiro