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Britain; Dutch East Indies, comprising Java and of causes as advisers, but destitute of jurisdiction.

Madura, Suratra, Riau-Lingga Archipelago, Banca, Formerly a judge might select laymen for this post,

Billiton, Borneo, Celebes, Molucca Islands, Timor but the Code now provides that they are to be

Archipelago, Bali, and Lombok. chosen from among the q^odal judges.

Turkey in Asia, before the war, comprised Asia .«».••• -r^

Minor, Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia, Kurdistan, AMiout, mission m Egypt, is the seat of a Coptic

Armenia, and part of Arabia. By the terms of the bjM>op and is under the care of the Friars Minor.

Treaty of SJvres (10 August, 1920), she retains Rev. VinceMO " Fracisini of this order has been

only part of Asia Minor, Smyrna having been supenor of the mission since its erection in 1907.

granted to Greece. Certain concessions made to The territory has a population of 15,000.

her by a revision of this treaty in 1921 are con- Assist, Diocese of (Assisibnsis- C E I-801b)

      • lf i'^j-^'.^'* r'« "^^ hostiUties. The war j^ t^e province of Perugia. Italy,' is dir^tly sub^

resulted disastrously for Turkey her power was j^^t to the Holy See. The present bishop, Rt Rev.

greatly Aminished her terntonal losses very great. Ambrogio Luddi of the Dominican oJder, b. at

StroM German influences withm the Turkish Em- Raggioli, 1841, was appointed to this see 27 Feb-

pire had led her to enter the war aUied with Ger- jgog j^ j^gi f^ere were 30,152 Catholics in

r,^- ^ had but recently emerged from the j^e diocese, of whom 4,227 are in the city of Aaisi.

^S W*'^.<J«f«»*«f '^^^'^ *« I.PT'^^^n There are 35 parishes, 186 churches, 19 studente h^

mto the world conflict. . Her geographical position ^^^^ diocesan seminal, and 72 at the pontifical

prevented, her from bf>«»8. of. d'^ef ^"f^^tf'f « *° seminary. Among the religious orders of men th^

Germany m Europe, though she defended the Dar- ^^^ gg j ^ ^^ j^ brothere, besides 46 broth-

danelles and the Russian frontier. Asm w^ the ^„ j^ ^,^^^^ congregations; 18 convents for men,

scene of constant struggle, chiefly against British ^^^ jy monasteries for women with 236 nuns. The

forces. «1«^ m large numbers from I?dia. The ^^^ous institutions include 1 college with 215 stu-

seizure <>* B^; t^^f^fe 9^ ^SL^Lnt^J^i «'«*«. <^ ii«tit"te fof ^^ deaf and blind, 107 recrea-

Tcmnshend (September WlS^ite subseque^^^^ tion centera and 27 Circles of St. Francis, for the

and 8urren<fer to Tur^h f orees ( AprJ 1916), ite A new laboratoiy and recreation c^ter wiU

Sr(ffirm7)*' by'^Britbh =f uSdel ^l^^^-^^ -<*- '^ ^^^<-^- ^f St. PVancis in General Maude were important events in the Meso-

potamian campaign. The surrender of Gaza, Joppa, Associations, Pious (cf. C. E., II-5) .—Under the and finally Jerusalem (December, 1917), were vie- general title of associations of the faithful the Code tones for British forces under General AUenby in treats of secular third orders, confraternities and Palestine. All these culminated in the great Allied pious imions. A secular third order is a body of lay offensive of the fall of 1918 when, simultaneously persons (occasionally clerics are enrolled) who, aim- Allied troops pressed northward through Syria, cap- ing at Christian perfection, follow a rule inspired turing Haifa, Damascus, T3rre, Sidon, Beirut, and by the spirit of a religious order but suited to their finally Aleppo (26 October) and through Meso- conditions as laics, and approved for them by the potamia, arriving victorious in Mosul (3 November). Holy See. Pious imions are associations of the Turkey surrendered unconditionally to the Allies faithful erected to promote the practice of works 30 October, 1918. In Arabia the Turks were opposed of piety or charity; pious unions are called sodali- by the Arabs themselves who revolted against ties when they are organically constituted, that is Turkish rule and with the aid of the British, notably when they are constitutionally required to have a Col. Thos. Lawrence, roujed the Turkish forces president and a body of assistants and councilors; after severe fighting and established the independent while a sodality erected to foster public worehip is kingdom of Hejaz. Armenia, divided in its alle- known as a confraternity. There are certain non- gianoe to Russian and Turkish sovereignty, was the ecclesiastical though pious associations of Catholics, scene of hideous massacre by the Turks, and thank- such as the Conferences of St. Vincent de Paul less fighting in the cause ol Russia. The new re- and various temperance organizations, which have public was bom out of bloodshed and oppression, been commended and enriched with favors by the

A^ ««j *r A /A pope; yet as they have been called into existence

Asia Minor, Vicarial Apostolic op (Able ^^d are governed not by the Church but by the

MiNOBis) , with reffldence at Smyrna, is entrusted to i^^^y, they are not bound by the canon law govem-

the ArchbiAop of Smyrna, who acts as adminis- ^^ associations. As societies they are, therefore,

trator. For civil history see Anatolia. exempt from episcopal jurisdiction ; however, they

Prefkcturib Apostouc op (AsaAMBNSis; come under the vigilance of the bishop in so far

cf. C. E., I-793d), in the ecclesiastical province of a? it is his duty to see if there is anything m his

Calcutta, India, was served by the Society of the dioc^e that is a source of danger to the faith or

Divine Savior up to 9 July, 1915, when the Ger- morals of his subjects; this duty of vigilance entails

man Fathers were repatriated. The Belgian Jesuits ^^^ [22^!^ ^^^^^^^^'^ ^^^- ^^^ ^P^- ^^^' ^^^>

of Bengal took charge on 22 June, 1915, and served PP^,l^?u ' i. • i . .. , •

until the appointment of the Salesian Fathers in The Church recognizes as ecclesiastical only such

July, 1921. The Rev. L. Mathias is Superior asrociatioM as have been erected or approved by

Regular of the mission. By 1920 statistics the total lawful ecclesiastical authority; that is, by the pope

population of this territory is 7,309,800, of whom ^r. the lo(»l ordinary, except where by Apostolic

5,738 are Catholics and 800 catechumens. The re- pnvilege the right of institution is reserved to oth-

mainder of the population is divided among seven- <^"- ..When such a privilege has been granted the

teen different sects. There are 51 regular priests, erection of the association would, as a rule, be

50 churches or chapels, 10 principal mission stations "^'^^}l^ without the written consent of the ordinary,

and 88 sub-stations and 2 orphanages. A press 5^^ ^l^e consent of a vicar generd or vicar capitular

established at ShiUong publishes textbooks and ^^ not suffice. When an ordinary consents to

controversial pamphlets in the Khasi language. ^^% erection of a religious house, that permission

sumces also for the erection m that house or m

AssaBSors (cf. C. E., I-799d), in ecclesiastical the church belonging to it of an association belong-

courts are clerics associated with judges in the trial ing to the religious order, but not organically con-