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States Senate. In 1894, he was appointed associate archbishop had purchased an allotment, intending

justice of the United States Supreme Court by that the first Arab Christians would settle there

President Cleveland, and on 12 December, 1910, was under the immediate control of the White Fathers,

named Chief Justice by President Taft, the first The Sisters were to teach the women to tcJce care of

instance in which a president named a chief justice of their new homes and to bring uptheir children in a

a different poUtical aJSliation. Coming from Louisiana Christian manner. In 1876St. £li2abeth's Hospital

where the civil ^ot the common, law is the basis of was established and there ^e Sisters still nurse their

jurisprudence. White is considered to have been the numerous Arab patients. A year later the station

greatest authority on the civil law who has graced of Ste. Monique was founded nearby: then came the

the United States Supreme Court bench. In cases mission of Les Quad Thias in Kabylia, Beni-Ismail

involving the Government he was a federalist in his and Djemaa-Saharidi in the same province. In 1882

decisions, for instance in the insular cases, though he the Sisters were installed at La Marsa, near Carthage,

delivered a minority decision against it in the famous where they opened a school, an asylum for bereaved

Northern Securities case. He received the Lsetare women, and an orphanage tor European girls. The

Medal from the University of Notre Dame in 1914, Sisters were insufiBcient in number to respond to the

and at the time of his death he was chancellor of the many calls for new mission stations, and recruiting

Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. houses were opened in Lyons and Paris, at Maestricht

in Holland, and Herent in Belnum. At the death

White Fathers, (Mission arisb of Oxm Lady of Cardinal Lavigerie in 1892, the congregation was

OF Africa of Algiers; cf. C. E., XV — 613d). — A confided to the care of its superior generm. Mother

society of secular priests living in community, and Marie Salom6. The mistress of novices haa received

laboring for the conversion of Africa. At present a special blessing from the cardinal for her little flock,

the missionaries have under their care the Prefecture In 1893 the Sisters were at work in 11 stations.

Apostolic of Ghardaia and the vicariates apostolic of They are under the spiritual guidance of the White

Uganda, Victoria-Nyanza. Kivu, Unyanyembe, Tan- Fathers, and have established their works in the

ganyika, Nyassa, Banguelo, Upper Congo, Bamoko, following vicariates confided to the care of these

and Wag^adugu. The two last were erected in 1921 missionaries: Upper Congo, Tanganiyika. Victoria-

by division of the Prefecture Apostolic of Sahara. Nyanza, Unyanvambe, ^yassa, Uganda, Kivu,

Riecruiting houses for the society are in Quebec Banguelo, Bamoko, and Wa^hadugu; and in the

(Canada), Bel^um, Holland, Germany, Italy, prefecture apostolic of Ghardaia. They have estab-

Luxemburg, Switzerland, and France, in which are liahed schools, workrooms, dispensaries, hospitals,

received those not yet ready for the novitiate. Those leper-hospitab, and asylums. In the villages of the

desiring to become priests are admitted to the novi- Kabyles they have infant-schools and workrooms

tiate after their philosophical studies and one ^ear of where women and ^Is learn plain sewing and carpet

general theology. Thev complete their studies and weaving and the sick are nursed in the Hospital of

are ordained at the scholasticate of Carthage in Tunis. Ste. Eugenie. In 1910 the the French Red Cross

The superior general, Mgr. Livinhac, titular Areh- inaugurated an important dispensary in Tunis and

bishop of Oxrynchus, resides at Maison Carr^ near several White Sisters act as nurses. The Sisters also

Algiers. In July, 1921, the society numbered: have orphanages, workrooms, and dispensaries in the

15 bishops, 1 prefect apostolic^ 645 priests, 225 protectorate.

brothers, 75 novices, with 100 pupils in the theological The congregation has grown and prospered. At

classes. In the houses of postulants for the novitiate present there are 550 professed nuns staffed in 64

were 90 pupils. The number of neophytes in all the posts, the greater number being situated in British

vicariates (June. 1920), was 305,154, and the number East and (Antral Africa. An aspirant to the order

preparing for oaptism was 120,560. There were must have completed her sixteenth vear and not be

1400 Christians in the mission established bv the over thirty-five. Widows are not aomitted. Abne-

White Fathers among the Berbers of Jurjura (Alge- gation of self is the most valuable virtue for a mission-

ria), in June, 1921; the regions bordering on the ary Sister. After a postulate of several months the

n'eat lakes and the Sudan show the best results, aspirant is admitted to the novitiate at Algiera, and

The number of Ixrra and girls in the schools under makes her first vows at the end of ekhteen montiis.

instruction of the White Fathers in June, 1920, was These vows are renewed annually for five years, when

64,096 and 38,758 r^pectively. In 1921 the French the Sisters are admitted to perpetual profession.

Government named fr. Van der Vliet, missionary in There are no lay Sisters in the community; each and

Jerusalem, Knight of the Legion of Honor, in recog- all are employed in manual or apostolic labor accord-

nition of his services during the World War. Being ing to their strength and aptitudes or the will of the

of Dutch origin, he was permitted to remain in superiors. Common life is a rule, the constitutions

Jerusalem, where he was able to aid the French prescribing that a community must never reckon less

religious expelled from the Holy Land and to guard than three members. In distant mission posts there

from profanation the Basilica and Seminaiy of are usually four or five Sisters so as to fill the vacant

St. Anne. ^f^^ ^ ^^^^^ ^^ sickness or other unforeseen necessitv.

Though superfluity is obviously banished from the

Wlilte Sisters (Missionary Sisters of Our Sisters' livelihood, the necessary has never failed

Lady op Africa). — ^A religious con^^tion estab- them, and since the inauguration of the railway in

lished bv Cardinal Arehbiwop Lavigene of Algiers Britiw East Africa and elsewhere the means of

to aid tne White Fathers in their evangelization of existence have been greatly facilitated. A simple

Africa. The &cst eight aspirants from Brittanv, habitation, and plain, nutntious and sufiScient food

France, were trained in the relisdous life by tne are provided. Tjie religious costume is composed of

Sisters of the Congregation of St. Charles of Nancy, a white robe and scapular; a wimple and a wnite veil

one of whom had brought them safely to Algiers, indoors and on the mission; in European centres the

The rules of their institutes were drawn up by Areh- Sisters wear a black veil and mantle over their white

bishop Lavigerie, and after a strict novitiate the robe whenever they go abroad. They also wear a

candidates received the habit from him. Other silver crucifix attached to a red silk cord on the

postulants from France joined them, but some found breast, and the rosary beads, black and white, are

the life too severe and returned to their native land, suspended at the belt. The Sisters undertidce aeeds

The first mission P&rty was formed in 1873 and sent of merey and charitv of everv kind in behalf of the

to the village of St. Cyprien des Attafs, where the African natives, and follow aaily spiritual exercises.