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the Vicar Apostolic, were killed, while the others diocesan seminary . chapter, and consistory were trans- had to flee the country for a time. In 1917. the ferred by the civil autnorities from Varna to Kauna, missionaries of German nationality were prohibited and in 1895 the Chruch of St. Peter and Paul was from carrying on their missionary work and in Sep- declared the cathedral church of Leo XIII. On 26 tember, 1920, the Vicar Apostolic, Mgr. Spreiter. April. 1921^ the cathedral church on the five hun- O. S. B., and all his fellow-Germans were repatriated dredtn anniversary of the foundation of the diocese by the British Government. In the meantime was made a minor basilica, the solenmities of the Father Joseph Laaue^ with some missionaries, mostly erection bein^ held at Kauna on 11 September, belonging to the White Fathers, have taken over the 1921. The diocesan patron is St. John the Baptist, care of the prefecture and vicariate by order of the the external celebration being held on the Sundy Cardinal Prefect of Propaganda. In 1921, the vica- before the feast of St. Peter and Paul, riate was entrusted to the Swiss Capuchins and to In 1921 there were in the diocese: 360 parishes, 415 the Fathers of the Institute of Consolation, and the churches, 1 monastery of monks, 1 convent of nuns prefecture to the Swiss Benedictines. In the thirty- with solemn vows; 649 secular, 6 regular priests, 17 three years that have elapsed since the separate lay brothers; 1,300,000 Catholics; 1 seminary, 14 mission was founded seventy of the missionaries have professors, 109 students; 1 xmiversity; 1 boys' college, laid down their lives there; 1 bishop, 14 priests; 7 professors, 98 students; 1 girls' collc^, 8 professors, 27 brothers and 28 nuns, all belonging to the Bene- 90 students; 10 primary schools, 23 teachers, dictine Congregation of St. Ottilicn. 500 pupils; 4 industrial schools, 12 teachers, 120

The boimdaries of the Vicariate together with the pupils; 12 hospitals and orphanages; 7 day nurseries;

Prefecture are: on the north from the Indian Ocean priests are permitted to exercisie their ministry in all

to Mbweni, then the boundary separating the civil the schools. 'The Lithuanian Government supports

provinces of Bagamoyo and Mo^oro from Dar-es- all the Catholic schools in the diocese governed by

oalaam and Rufigi, then the rivers Ruaha and Catholic associations like the Saul^ (Sol; or Zibur>'s

Umerowe as far as the railway from the eastern coast (Faz) or by private persons. 'Furthermore, in all

to Lake Tanjgan3dka, then along the railwa^r as neutral or mixed schools the doctrines of Catholicism

far as Kilimatinde; on the west a line from Kilimatinde are taught.

alon^; the railway as far as Lake Nyasa and 34' Societies. — The clergy have a mutual assurance

lon^tude, then along Lake Nyssa to the Portuguese society, and a diocesan temperance sodahty. The

territory, but so as to include the entire districts of following are the societies, among the laity: (a)

Uhehe and Ugogo and Ubena in the Vicariate of Catholic Societjr of Lithuanian Women or "L. K.

Dar-es-Salaam; on the south the river Rovuma as Moteru Drauj^iji," founded in 1908. It has 80

far as the Indian Ocean, i. e., the boundary between branches, publishes a review called "Moteris," and

the British and the Portuguese territories; on the east supports or directs about 30 institutions: schools,

the Indian Ocean, the rivers Mbenkuru and Ruhuyc libraries, orphanages, etc.; (b) The "Motin^h "

separating the vicariate and the prefecture. The ('little mother') association, for the support of youths

ecclesiastical boundaries are: on the north the pursuing high studies; (c) Society of St. Casimir,

Vicariate Apostolic of Bagamoyo; on the west the 'or publishing and distributing good books: (d)

Vicariate Apostohc of Tanganyika; on the south the temperance societies; (e) the Action catholique;

Prelature nullius of Mozambique. The mission is (0 the Christian Democratic Party; (g) the "Lietuvos

entirely within the Tanganyika territoiy, over which Darbo Federacija" or Federation of Workingmen;

the British have a mandate since the War. (h) St. Zita's Society, for servants; (i) Our Lady's

Almost all the natives use the Kisqahil language, Society, for servants; (j) St. Vincent de Paul con-

thou^h each tribe has its own language as well, the ferences; (k) the "Ateitininkai" association of young

principal ones being Kihehe, iSpogoro, Kigogo, students; (I) the "Pavasaris" association of Catholic

Kingui, and Kinyassa. In the vicariate of Dar-es- young men.

Salaam there were according to the census of 1914, Thereare 1,300,000 Catholics in the diocese, almost

approximately 568,800 natives, while the prefecture all Lithuanians. In the cities and some parts of the

of Lindi had 485,800. At the end of 1921, the vicar- country there are groups that speak Polish at home,

iate had 7847 neoph)rtes, 295 catechumens, 69 elem- but they do not amount to over 4 per cent. There

entary schools, and 76 catechists; while the prefecture are 2 Catholic daily papers and 12 periodicals,

had 14,419 neophytes, 4,802 catechumens, 141 Among the clerey and laity who have died since

elementary schools and 161 catechists. In the 1912 mention should be made of Petrus Krauciunas, a

eastern part of the vicariate there are 9 Swiss Capu- layman, a master of theology, noted teacher, philo-

chin priests, 6 Brothers, and 9 Sisters; while in the logist, and patriot, who died in 1912; Joannes Bal-

western part there are 6 priests of the Institute of vocius, a priest and a popular writer: Caspar Cirtaut as

Consolata of Turin. In the prefecture of Lindi, there bishop of the diocese, who restored and adorned the

are assigned to the mission 13 Swiss Benedictines cathedral, and died in 1913: Riauba, Dovydaitis,

(8 priests and 5 Brothers)^ and 6 White Fathers, and Juozapavici the first Lithuanian soldiers to die

While awaiting the separation of the three missions ^^ *^e struggle to liberate their fatherland in 1918.

just mentioned, Father Joseph Laaue of the White Notable diocesan events since 1912: (1) the pre-

Fathers is administrator general. conization of the present bishop Mgr. Franciscus

Karevicus in 1914: (2) letter of Pope Benedict XV

Zemalti, Diocese op (Samogitiensis; cf. C. E., to the bishop in which he consoled the oppressed peo-

XIII— 421), in Lithuania. The present incumbent pie of Lithuania and appointed 20 May, 1917 as the

of this see is Mgr. Francesco Karewicz, b. at Masiady, day on which a collection was to be taken up in all

in this diocese, on 17 September, 1861; chancellor of the churches in the world for the war victims in

the cathedral of Mohileff, and appointed bishop of Lithuania (Welkollekte); (3) the nomination of

Zemaiti on 20 February, 1914, in succession to M^r. Archbishop Achille Ratti, now Pope Pius XI, as

Cyrtowt, who died on 20 September, 1913. Thisdio- visitor Apostolic to Lithuania; he came the diocese

cese was erected in 1417 by the Council of Constance in January, 1920; (4) the 500th aniversary of the

at the request of Witold the Great, with its see at erection of the diocese; (5) the granting of the title

Varna or Medininki, and was confirmed by Pope and privileges of a minor basilica to the cathedral

Martin V in 1421. In 1849 it comprised the provinces church at Rauna on 26 April, 1921; (6) the Bull

of Kauna (Kovho) and Kiron, with an area of about "Maxime interest" of 9 June, 1920, transferring part

23,800 square miles. In 1864 the episcopal see, of the civil province of Courland, with about 100,000