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of Fr. S. Salaville, who succeeded Fr. L. Petit. Russia, hoping for greater religious liberty under Many of the editors of '^Echos d'Orient" have the Bolsheviks than under the former Government, acquired fame in the scientific world by their col- In the United States the College of the Assump- laboration in different Oriental reviews and encyclo- tion founded at Worcester, Mass., in 1903, has pedias and by their works: Fr. J. Pargoire (d. developed rapidly. Teaching is bilingual. The 1907) wrote '^L'Eglise byzantine de 527 k 847," program of studies includes an elective course in "Recueil des inscriptions chretiennes du Mont philosophy and such obligatory courses as are es- Athos," etc. Fr. J. Thibout, who had occasion to sential to the formation of a thorough and general decipher valuable manuscripts in the Imperial Li- knowledge. The college confers degrees upon those braiy of Petrograd, wrote Monuments de la nota- who successfully pass a final examination. There tion ekphonetique et neumatique de TEglise latine/* are accommodations for 250 boarders, and many "Monuments de la notation ekphonetique et priests, religious, doctors and lawyers are among hagiopolite de TEglise grecque," etc.: Fr. R. Louaru the alumni. The Fathers have two parishes in wrote Memento de theologie morale k Tusage des New York, in one of which the provincial, Fr. T. missionaries, etc.; Fr. Jugu wrote "Nestorius et la Pesse, resides. In 1916 a foundation was made in controverse nestorienne" (collection: "Biblioth^que Quebec, Canada, where the novitiate for the Amer- de theologie historique), "Histoire du canon de ican province was erected the following year. The Tancien Testament dans I'Eglise grecque et TEglise headquarters for Canada of the Archconfratemity russe," "La Pri^re pour I'unit^ chretienne," etc. of PJrayer and Penance in honor of the Sacred Heart The last two are, with Fr. S. Vailh6, professors at of Jesus is at the convent of Jeanne d'Arc, Quebec, the Oriental Pontifical Institute, founded by Pope and for the United States at the Church of Our Benedict XV. Lady of Hope, New York. This archconfratemity

Another Assmnptionist of note is Mgr. Petit, numbers more than 300,000 members, and was former superior of the school of higher studies at established in the United States by Fr. M. Clement Kadikoi and former director of the "Echos Staub.

d'Orient." He was named by Pius X in 1912 arch- In France the numerous branches of work of the bishop and delegate apostolic at Athens, being "Bonne Presse" are under the hidden but real in- appointed there because of his perfect knowledge fluence of the religious. Several years before the of the Greek language and of Oriental affairt. He war a third daily supplementary page on doctrinal published with Fr. Pargoire "Recueil des mscnptions subjects was added to the regular two-page journal, chretiennes du Mont Athos," and "Chartres de "La Croix"; there are treated questions concerning monasteres grecs" (5 vols). In 1908 he engaged in popular theology, apologetics, philosophy, sociS research work m the Propaganda archives, and science, and spirituality. The number of interesting was theologian and consultor of the Council of and instructive reviews on Rome, Jerusalem, Notre Armenian Catholics in 1911. His principal work Dame, and the Eucharist was increased. The diffi- is the continuation of the famous collection of- the culties of the war made necessary the suppression Councils by Mansi, in collaboration with Abb6 of some of these reviews; those on Rome and the Martin. More than twenty volumes have appeared, Eucharist have been revived. The review "Le and supplements have been added to complete the Noel" continues to spread throughout all countries first volumes of Mansi. The documents of the and from it have been founded three other reviews Council of the Vatican will comprise five volumes; "La Maison," "L'Etoile Noeliste," and "L'echo du two have appeared accompanied by notes and pre- Noel." "Le Noel" has a special office in Buenos cededby a masterly preface in Latin by Mgr. Petit, Aires, with a Spanish edition under the direction who has been able to consult the secret and reserved of a religious who also has \mder his care the young archives of the council with the kindly authorization men and women of South America. The "Bonne of Pius X. This collection is one of the most Presse" also publishes the "Annuaire pontifical important literary works of the twentieth century, catholique," commenced by Mgr. Battandier, and

The splendid hostelrv of Notre Dame de France continued by the Fathers of the Assumption. An at Jerusalem, from which the religious were ex- index of the first twenty volumes (1898-1917) has pell^ by the Turks during the war, was not in- just been published. Two important reviews of jured during its military occupation first by the recent date are also published by the "Bonne Turics and then by the English, owing to the Presse": the "Documentation catholique" and presence of a religious who because of his German "Pretre et Apotre." The "Documentation catho- origin found favor with the military force. The lique" is a weekly, founded in 1919 by the fusion first series of pilgrimages to the Holy Land were of four documentary magazines which the war in- resumed after the war in 1922. On this occasion temipted: "Questions actuelles," "La Chronique the professors of Notre Dame de France at Jem- de la Presse," "La Revue d'organization et de salem re-edited and brought up to date "La Pales- defense religieuse," and "L'Action catholique." It tine, an histoncal guide, both devout and scientific, treats of religious, social, political, literary, his- to the Holy Places. The church of Notre Dame torical, juridical, national, and international sub- de France, which was enriched by Pope Leo XIII jects, giving varied information derived from with the indulgence of the Tomb of the Blessed periodicals of all nations and every lajiguage. It Virgin, was made by Fr. V. de P. Bailly the center constitutes a documentation of general opinion, of the Society of the Crusadera of Purgatory. valuable alike in fortifying the Catholic mind and

Russia became a field of activity for the congre- developing the civic information of the 61ite in

gallon several years before the war, due to the grouping m one magazine all the authentic texts berality and broadmindedness of the Russian min- of which the Catholic has need who desires to ister, Stol3rpine. The religious established influen- participate in the life of the Church and the State. tial intellectual centers at Petrograd, Moscow, and The "rretre et Apotre," founded during the war, Odessa, and founded a review in the Russian Ian- was originally called "Le Pretre axa armees." It guage to make Rome better known to the Slavs, was meant to sustain the religious spirit of priests The Russian revolution destroved these works and and religious in the army. Since the end of the expelled the religious, with the exception of one war it 1ms become an eminently serious and doo- who was hunted and finally imprisoned by the trinal review for the clergy, a bulletin of the in- Bolsheviks, The Fathers are preparing to re-enter tenor life and of the apostolate, giving subjects