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Baalbek, Diocese of Heuopoutaka; cf. C. E., 1019, and which was elected on the basia of equal, II-l77a), in Syria, known to the Greek and Latin secret, direct, universal suffrage, with proportionate writers as Heliopolis. It is the see of a Maronite representation of all males and females. According and a Melchite bishop, and for the Maronites is to this Constitution of 21 March, 1919, the Free an archdiocese. There are at present (1922) 40,000 State of Baden is a Republic and a component part Catholics belonging to* this Rite, 173 priests, and 112 of Germany. There is no State church, but religion churches or chapels, presided over by Most Rev. is taught in the schools. The initiative and referen- John Mourad, consecrated 12 June, 1892. He re- dum have been adopted. There is only one Cham- sides at Aramoun-dc-Kesrouan, in Lebanon. ber, elected for four years, which nominates the

The diocese for the Greek-Melchite Rite is ad- President of the Cabinet (State President). The

ministered by Rt. Rev. Agapios Maalouf, b. at Cabinet consists of 5 ministers and 4 state-coun-

Zahle, 1846, appointed bishop 29 March, 1896. His cilors.

residence is at Baalbek, to which he returned in Baden has 2 universities (Heidelberg and Frei-

1918, after having been driven ^rom his diocese by burg), 1 commercial high school (Mannheim), 1

the Turks. There are 8,450 Catholics belonging to technical high school, 12 high schools for girls, 12

this Rite, 9 parishes, 4 secular priests and 10 normal schools, and several technical and special

regular clergy, 10 churches, and 3 scnools. Heliop- schools,

oils is a titular see for the Latin Rite. For Catholic statistics see Frbibxtbo, Archdiogbsb


Babylon, Patriarchate of (Babtlonbnbib; cf. C. E., II-179a), of the Chaldean Rite, has its seat Bagamoyo, Vicariate Apostouc of (Baoamoten-

at Mossul where the patriarch resides. The present ^^. cf. C. E., II-202b). in East Africa. On 23

patnarch.Hw Excellency Emmanuel Joseph Thomas, November, 1918, Bagamoyo. a former possession of

b. at Alkosh 1852, was appointed Bishop of Seert the German Empire, surrendered and is now divided

4 September, 1890, and promoted to the Patnarchate between the British and Belgians. Owing to the

of Babylon 8 July, 1900. In 1910 he was named ravages of the war this once flourishing vicariate

administrator apostolic of Akra, and in 1920 he Apostolic suffered untold losses and was threatened

went to Paris to watch over the interests of his ^th ruin. Thirteen priests, 15 brothers, and 16

people at the Peace Conference. The patriarch has ^uns were obliged to leave the mission. Some of

a patriarchal vicar at Mossul, one at Jerusalem, them died; others, owing to their German nation-

2?iw?°iSu*L ^°^??' L^y ^^ statistics there are aijty, were requested to leave the country; two

31,900 Chaldean Catholics m this patnarchate, 46 missions were entirely laid waste, others were partly

secular and 39 regular clergy, 27 churches or chapels, demolished, and 200 schools were partly destroyed,

and 17 schools. It was impossible to replace those who had been

Badajoi, DiocBSB of (Pacenbib; cf. C. E. called away, and as the revenues decreased con- n-193d), in that district of Spain called Civitas S??!*^'^ i^,T^® difficult to continue the work- Pacensis, because it was once thought to be the With much labor and expense the rubber mdustry Pax Jvlia or Pax Augusta of the Romans. Rt. Rev. J?ad been estabhshed and was beginning to thnve, Adolphe Perez y Munoz, appointed to this see but this too was nuned by the war, and it will take 18 July, 1913, was transferred to Cordova 11 July, y®5;" ^^ 1*°?'^ .^^ ®^^*.°!l!}}. *^- , 1920, and was succeeded by the present incumbent, , The population now (1922) numbers 400.000 in- Rt. Rev. Raymond Perez y Rodriguez, appointed habitants, of whom 21,180 are Catholics. Prior to 31 August of the same year. According to 1920 ^¥ war they numbered 26.000. There are H pnnj- statistics this diocese comprises a Catholic popula- cipal mission stations, 14 churches and chapete, 20 tion of 648,000, 154 parishes, 14 archpriests, 376 secondary miMionstetioM, 21 pneste of the Con- priests, 154 churches, 251 chapels, 56 convents with gregation of the Holy Ghost, 6 brothers, 16 sisters, 153 reUgious, and 520 sisters. y>o belong to the coMregation of Daughters of

Mary; 365 native catechists who instruct the adults

Baden (cf. C. E., II-194b), Free State of, for- and the children in the rural schools. In each mi» merly a grand duchy, now a republic and a com- sion there is a primary school, and in the outlying ponent state of Germany; bounded by Switzerland, districts there are a number of rural schools situated Alsace, the Palatinate, Hesse, Bavaria, and Wurtem- at a walking distance of one or two days. The berg, covering an area of 5,819 sq. miles. According government does not support the schools nor does to the census of 1 December, 1910, the popula- it care for the sick. The difficult work of clearing tion numbered 2,142333, including 1,271,015 Cath- the land is being carried on. Islamism is spread olics, 821,236 Evangelicals, 7,821 Old Catholics, 2,154 throughout the coimtiy, especially along the coast. Lutherans, 1,765 Reformed, 24M)9 of various Evan- For many year the Church Mission Society has gclical beliefs, 25,896 Jews, 4333 others of various been active in the vicariate. The University Mis- religious persuasions. sion no longer has any missions, but conducts sev-

In 1919 the population was 1,051,405 males and eral rural schools. A small hospital has been

1,157,098 females, the density being 3795 per sq. opened at Bagamoyo an at each of the fourteen

mile. The principal cities are Mannheim, 229,576; missions there is an orphanage and a clinic with

Karlsriihe, 135,952; Freiburg, 87,946; Pforzheim, medical service, and several workshops. Nearly all

73,839; Heidelberg, 60,831; Constance, 30,119. the brothers have left and the work has progressed

On 22 November, 1918, the Grand Duke abdicated slowly in conse<mence. The first vicar apostolic,

and the provisional government proclaimed Baden Rt. Rev. Franz Aavier Vogt, of the Congregation

a republic. The new Constitution was determined of the Holy Ghost, is still administrator of the

by the National Assembly, which met on 15 January, vicariate. He was bom at Merlenheim, 3 Decem-