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AU6USTINIAN


104


ATJGUSTINIANS


2375-2408: Chevalier, Rt'pertoire des sources hist, rfu moyen ige (Bio-bMiographie. Paris. 190o(. col. 371-381.

On Acgustini.sm in History. — For philosophical Augus- tinism see, besides the above quoted works of M.\xdonnet and De Wulf, Werner. Die Augustini-sche Psychologic in ihrer niittelalterlichen Einkleidung und Gestaltung (Vienna. 1882); Idem. Der Augustinismus in der Scholastik des spdteren Mittelalters C Vienna, 1883). also other studies of the same author on Bede, Alcuin, Guillaume d'Auvergne. St. Thomas Aquinas, Siuirez; Ehrle. Der Auiyustinismu^ und der Aris- totelismus in der Scholastik gegen Ende des Xlil. Jahrhunderts. in Archiv fiir Litteratur und Kircheng. des Mittelalters (1889). For theological Augustinism see all doctrine-histories. Modern theologians usually exhibit the history of errors concerning Divine grace, e. g. the Thomists Lemos and Billu.\rt. the Molinist Su.\rez. the Sorbonnist Tournely. particularly SclPIONE M.\FFEI, Istoria teologica delle dottrinc e delle opi~ nioni corse ne* cinqw primi secoli delta Chiesa in proposito delta divina grazia, del libero arbitrio, e delia predestinazione (Trent, 1742; Latin. Frankfort. 1756). Cf. also G\UA.\tiD. Etude sur Vhistoire de la doctrine de la grace depuis S. Augu^tin (Lyons- Paris. 1897); THOM.tssiN, ^lt■moires sur la grice. oit ion repri- sente les sentiments de S. .Augustin, de S. Thomas, et de presque ious les theologien!s jusqu'au concile de Trente, et depuis ce candle des plus celebres docteurs des universites de VEurope (Louvain. 1668), in Latin. Consensus scholarum de gratia in his Dogmata Theologica (Paris, 1680), III. or (1870). VI; Du- chesne. Le Prcdestinatianisme (Paris, 1724); Mozley', St. Augustine's Doctrine of Predestination (London, 1855), see Dub. Ret: (1856), XL, 67 sqq.; Bvrton. The .Augustinian System, Dub. Rev. (1891), XXVI, 48-68; Koch, Die Autorilat des hi. Augustin in der Lehre von der Gnade und Pradestination in Tab. theol. Quartalschrift (1891); Idem, Der heilige Faustus von Riez (Stuttgail, 1895).

Eugene Port.\lie.

Augustinian Canons and Canonesses. See Col- ons .VXD C-\.noxesses,Regular.

Augustinians of the Assumption, or Assump- TioNisTS. — This congregation had its origin in the College of the Assumption, established in NImes, France, in 1843, by the Rev. Emmanuel d'Alzon vicar-general of that diocese, some account of whose life and work is given at the end of this article. Al- though it was organized in 18-17, the members did not take their first vows until 1850; they took their public vows at Christmas of the next year. A second house was established in Paris, and they continued their work there, encouraged by the Holy See. The congrega- tion was formally approved by a Brief of 26 Novem- ber, 186-1. The cliief objects of the congregation are to combat the spirit of irreligion in Europe and the spread of schism in the East. To this end the Assumptionists have devoted themselves to the work of CathoUc higher and secondary education, to the spread of truth by means of the Press, to the conduct of pilgrimages, and to missionarj' work in the East, In addition to their college at Nimes they established Apostolic schools where poor students were educated for the priesthood without expense to themselves. They establisheil " La Bonne Presse ", wliich issued periodicals, pamphlets, and books in great numbers, the cliief publication, "La Croix", appearing simultaneously in several different cities. Their activities provoked the resentment of the French Government, and in 1900 the congregation was suppressed within French territon,', this action being based on the charge that they were accumula- ting a fund to be used in a royahst mo^-ement to overthrow the Repubhc, Many of the Assumption- ists left France after tliis, but some remained as secular priests under the authority of various bishops.

At the time of their suppression the Assumption- ists maintained twenty Apostolic schools wliich in twenty-five years gave more than 500 priests to the secular clergj-. These schools have all been closed, but the congregation has taken up the work in other quarters. Similar schools have been established in Italy, Belgium, England, and the United States. " La Bonne Presse " was purchased at the time of the suppression by Paul Feron-Yrau, a wealthy manufacturer of Lisle, and all its publications have been continued without any change of policy. Much of the good accomplished by the -Assumption- ists was effected through this medium. They en- tered into competition with the irreligious press in


family circles, in workshops, and places where work- men congregate. i;\-ith excellent results. The Catho- hc papers established by them have a greater circu- lation than many famous non-Christian papers. L'ntil recently no popular CathoUc paper has reached a degree of circulation equal to that of "La Croix" or of "Le Pelerin". These two papers are issued at the rate of three million per week; Saturdays this is increased to four million copies. To tliis must be added the circulation of 600.000 copies of "The Lives of the Saints", 70,000 of the "Les Contempo- rains", besides the many copies of the "Revue scien- tifique"; "Cosmos"; "Questions actuelles"; "Les Echos cle rOrient"; the "Petit Bleu", and many others. In Cliile, where these Fathers have been for tliirteen years, they publisli in Spanish "Echoes from the Sanctuarj- of Lourdes". In their journal- istic work they were aided by the Oblate Sisters of the Assumption, an order established by them tD assist in their Oriental missions, but whose activities are not confined to that field. Lentil the suppression they directed the women's section in the publishing rooms of the "Christian Press" as well as the hospi- tals, orphan asylums, and schools.

Among other works carried on by the Assump- tionists in France prior to their suppression was that of the "Association of Our Lady of Salvation", a society devoted to prayer, almsgiving, and setting a good example for the reformation of the working class. Tliis society was established in eighty dio- ceses, and it succeeded in dramng the higher classes of society more closely to the workingmen. It en- couraged everywhere social prayer, and social and national expiation, and discouraged human respect, social apostasy, and isolation in piety. It raised fimds to convey workmen, pilgrims, paupers, ami sick poor to LoiU'des, to the number of a thousand each year; it was zealous in the cause of workmen's clubs, and of Catholic schools, and was active in the movement in favour of the keeping of Sunday as a day of rest. Another field of missionary labour was found among the Newfoundland fishermen. Everj' year 12,000 or 15,000 fishermen leave the coasts of France, Belgium, and Ireland, to go to the Banks of Newfountlland for codfish. The Prt)t- estants have long maintained a flotilla of hospital sliips, with which they go to the aid of these un- fortunate men and, wliile ministering to their ma- terial needs, draw their souls to heresy. The As- smnptionists fovmd here a field for their acti\'ity and zeal. They have organized the most prominent CathoUc sailors into a committee and ha\-e been encouraged to equip two CathoUc hospital ships, wliich now succour the unfortunate fishermen. The vessels have alreaily been wrecked twice, but have been replaced, and the Assumptionists have con- tinued their labours.

The Assumptionists have been active mission- aries in the Orient, where at the present time 300 of the congregation, Fathers and Brothers, and nearly 400 Sisters are engaged. Their labours take them from the Balkans to the Dead Sea. They have estabUshed there twenty-two permanent residences, tliirty regular missionarj' stations, and fifteen in- stitutions entrusted to the Oblates of the Assump- tion. In the schools in Turkey in Europe and Turkey in Asia the Assumptionists have 2,500 scholars. Here the Oblates have opened a hospital, an orphanage, and nine gratuitous dispensaries, where they care for about 30.000 sick every year. Of the twenty-two public churches of the congrega- tion in the East twelve are parishes, and in four of them the Offices are held in the rites of the Orient (Greek, or Slav). These rites the Assumptionists have embraced to render the teaching of the Gospel more fruitful. The Orientals, whether from love of their legitimate traditions, or from ignorance, make of the