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Christians to the lion.) The pages of the Apolo- gists show how frequently the Christians were con- demned and what penalties they had to endure, and these vague and general references are confirmed by some contemporar}' "Acta' of unquestionable au- thority, in which the harrowing scenes are described in all their gruesome details. Among them are the "Acta" of Justin and his companions who suffered at Rome (c. 16.5), of Carpus, Papylus, and Aga- thonica, who were put to death in Asia Minor, of the SciUitan Martj"r3 in Xumidia, and the touch- ing Letters of the Churches of Lyons and Vi- enne (Eus., Hist. EccL, V, i-iv) in which is con- tained the description of the tortures inflicted (177) on Blandina and her companions at Lyons. Inci- dentally, this document throws much light on the character and extent of the persecution of the Christians in Southern Gaul, and on the share of the emperor therein.

The Roman histories of Gibbon, Duruy. and MERn'.^LE deal at length with his personal history; Schu.ler, Geschichte der romiscJien Kaiserzeil (Gotha, 1883); .Axl.ird. Histoire des persecutions pendant les premiers sii-cles (2d ed., Paris, 1892), ec. vi-vii; ReN-\x, Marc-Aurele et la fin du monde antique (6th ed., Paris, 1901); Dill. Romtin Society from Nero to MarcJis Aurelius (London. 1904), 506-511, and passim; F.\RRAR, Marcus Aurehus in Seekers after God (London, 1890.) His Meditations have been translated into English bv George Long (Ix)ndon. 1862); cf. also De Ch.\mp.\gsy, Les Cisars {Us Antonins) (Paris, 1863); D.irtigxe-Pevrox, Marc-Aurele dans ses rapports avec te Christianisme (Paris, 1897).


Aureola. See Nimbus.

Aureoli (Aureolus, D'AraiOL, Oriol), Petrus, a Franciscan philosopher and theologian, called on account of his eloquence Doctor jacundus, b. 1280 at Toulouse (or Verberie-sur-Oise) ; d. 10 Jan- uary', 1322 (Denifle; other dates assigned are 1330 and 1345). He entered the Order of Friars Minor, studied at Toulouse, taught theologv' there and at Paris and became (1319) provincial of his order (Pro\-ince of .\quitaine). Jolm XXII appointed him Archbishop of Aix (1321). He defended the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception in a public disputation at Toulouse (1314), in liis "De Conceptione Marise Virginis" and "Repercussorium" (reply to oppo- nents of the doctrine), in his "Sermons" and in his commentarj' on St. Bernard's teacliing. His other principal works are the commentarj' on the "Sen- tences" of Peter Lombard (Rome. 1596-1605), "Quodlibeta", and " Breviarium Bibliorum", an introduction to the .Scriptures with literal commen- tarj', wliich appeared in numerous editions at Venice Paris, and Louvain. A new etlition bj' Seeboeck was published at Quaracchi in 1S96. In philosophj- Aureoli was a Concept ualist and a forerunner of Occam. He criticized the doctrine of St. Thomas and defended, though not in all points, the views of Scotus. His writings on the Immaculate Conception were published bj' Petrus de Alva in the "Monumenta Seraphica Imm. Concept".

HuRTER. Xomenclntor, II. 463; Stanonik in Der KathoHk, (1882). I; Werner. Thomas von Aquin, III, 180-244; Ueber- ■weg-Heixze. Geschichte d. PhiXosophie (8th ed.). II, 306.

E. A. P.\CE.

Aureus Codex. See Codex.

Auricular Confession. See Coxfessiox.

Auriesville, the site of the Mohawk village, Montgomery Co., New York, U. S. A., in which Father Isaac Jogues and his companions, Goupil and Lalande, were put to death for the Faith by the Indians. It is on the south bank of the Mohawk, about fortj' miles west of Albanj'. Auries was the name of the last Mohawk who lived there, and from this the present designation was formed. It was known among the Indians as 0.ssernenon, also Gandawaga and Cauglinawaga, the latter being also

given to the settlement on the St. LawTence opposite Lachine which was established for the Iroquois converts who wanted to withdraw from the cor- ruption of their pagan kinsmen. To the village on the Mohawk Jogues and Goupil were brought in 1642 as prisoners, and, in 1646, Jogues again, with Lalande. In 1644 Bressani was tortured there, and later on Poncet. In 1655-56-57 Le MoJ^le came as ambassador to make peace; and the j-ear after the punitive expedition of the Marquis de Tracj' a per- manent mission was established (16C7). There Father Boniface, James de Lamberville, Fremin Bruj-as, Pierron, and others laboured until 1684, when the mission was destroj'ed. The famous Indian girl, Tegakwitha, was born there. From it she escaped to Canada. While the missionaries were in control of Ossernenon and the adjacent Indian towns, the Mohawk converts were remarkable for their exact Christian life, and in manj' instances for their exalted piety.

The exact location of this village, which is so intimateh' associated with the establishment of Christianitj' in Xew York, was for a time a subject of considerable dispute. The researches of John Gil- mary Shea, whose knowledge of the historj- of the earlj' mission was so profound, at first favoured the view that the old village was on the other side of the Mohawk at what is now Tribes Hill. More thorough investigations, however, aided bj' the conclusions of Gen. J. S. Clarke of Auburn, whose knowledge of Indian sites both in Xew York and Huronia is indisputable, have shown finallj- that the present Auriesville is the exact place in which Father Jogues and his companions suffered death. The basic evidence is the fact that, up to the time of their destruction bj' de Tracj', the villages were certainly on the south side of the Mohawk and west of the Schoharie — as is clear from contemporarj' maps, and from Jogues's,Bressani's, and Poncet 's letters. Joliet, one of the most accurate cartographers of the time, puts the village of Ossernenon at the junction of the Schoharie and Mohawk. To further particularize it, Jogues said the village was on the top of the hill, a quarter of a league from the river. The ravine in which Goupil s bodj' was found is also specified bj- Jogues, and he speaks of a watercourse and a riA'ulet uniting there — a feature still remaining. The dis- tances from Andagaron and Tionontoguen given bj- Father Jogues also fix the exact locality.

Satisfied that the precise spot had been determined, ten acres of land on the hill were purchased in 1884 by the Rev. Joseph Loyzance, S. J., who was at that time parish priest of St. Joseph's, Troy, N. Y., and who had all liis Ufe been an ardent student of the lives of the earlj' missionaries. Father Loyzance erected a small shrine on the hill, under the title of Our Lad)' of MartjTS, and he was the first to lead a number of pilgrims to the place, on the 15th of August of that j'ear, which was the anniversarj' of the first arrival of Father Jogues as an Iroquois captive. Four thousand people went from Albany and Troj' on that daj'. Other parishes sub.sequentlj- adopted the practice of visiting .\uriesville during the summer. Frequently there are as manj- as four or five thou- sand people present. The grounds have been since extended bej'ond the original limits, for the purpose of keeping the surroundings free from undesirable buildings. Manj' of the pilgrims come fasting and receive Holj' Communion at the shrine. The entire daj' is passed in religious exercises, but anj'thing which could in the least savour of anj' public cult of the martj'rs is sedulously guarded against, as such anticipation of the Church's official action would seriouslj' interfere with the cause of their canoniza- tion, which is now under consideration at Quebec. The present buildings on the site are only of a tem- porarj' nature. If the Church pronounces on the