the above reasons; and then they must be made known to, and approved as such, by the pope. It is not the practice to force a perpetual coadjutor upon an unwilling diocesan, although the pope can do so. Such perpetual coadjutor cannot mix in the ecclesiastical administration, nor do aught but as he is told or permitted by the diocesan. Some of the Fathers of the Vatican Council proposed that, in the future, auxiliary bishops should be appointed instead of perpetual coadjutors. A coadjutor is granteil to aid a diocesan in order and jurisdiction as far as is needed; the auxiliarj' is deputed to aid only in function of order. He may be made ^^car- general, and then, by virtue of tliat office, he has power of jurisdiction. Since auxiliarship, or tempo- rary eoadjutorship, is neither a title nor prelature, but an office, it is temporary, and ceases at the death, or suspension, or resignation, of the diocesan. The Holy See, for valid reasons, in the fifteenth century established permanent auxiliarships in Prussia, Poland, Spain, and Portugal. Pius VII (16 July, 1821, Const it. De salute animar.) confirmed such offices in Germany, etc. In these countries the office of auxiliary does not die with the diocesan, but continues under his successors. The auxiliary, sede vacante, however, cannot perform functions strictly episcopal. Successors to such auxiliaries are not given the same, but an entirely different, titular see. Perpetual eoadjutorship is irrevocable, and its holder succeeds immediately to the vacant see; no further collation or election is necessary. Office of auxiliary, etc. is revocable at will of pope and diocesan; that of the perpetual coadjutor cannot be taken away unless for canonical causes. Auxil- iaries and temporary coadjutors are appointed by the Holy Father at the request of the bishop in need of assistance. The pope (on petition of the Sacred Congregation of the Council, or of Propaganda) as a rule appoints the clergyman named by orator. The election or nomination for perpetual coadjutors is gov- erned by the law for election or nomination (sede va- cante) of a new diocesan. The same disposition of mind and body is required for auxiliarj', etc. as for dio- cesan bishops. They must be thirty years complete, and have spent six months in Sacred orders prior to elevation to the episcopate, yet in the case of the auxiliaries, the most worthy has no rights over the merely worthy. For perpetual eoadjutorship most worthy is demanded.
Rights and duties of auxiliaries must be considered from a twofold standpoint: i. e. titulars of a diocese, and auxiliaries of diocesan bishops. By right of consecration a tit\ilar auxiliary can validly, but not licitly, without permission of the residential, perform all the functions annexed to the episcopal order by Divine and ecclesiastical law. The Church could, but does not, require the diocesan's permission, for the validity of the latter functions. Having no actual jurisdiction, he cannot without express con- sent and permission of the ordinary perform pon- tifical functions in the city or diocese, nor can he <io so, sede vacante, even with the permission of the chapter. Possessing only potential jurisdiction in his titular see, he cannot (a) hear, or grant faculties to hear, confession of a visiting subject from his titular see; (b) confirm or ordain him; (c) send a priest to preach, or to perform any priestly functions, in his titular see; (d) absolve, or grant faculty to a diocesan priest to absolve, a member of his own household; (e) assist at the marriage of a titular subject, a visitor where the Tridentine holds; (f) ordain his familiar of three years' standing, nor grant indulgences. Should at any time clergj' or laity sufficiently numerous be found in his titular diocese, and no representative of tlie Holy See have supervision over it, he can immediately, without any other collation of the benefice, take possession of
his titular church. He then ceases to be titular and becomes diocesan. He may, and according to some must, be invited to General Councils, and once there he has decisive vote. A few were present at the Council of Trent and quite a number at the Vatican Council. Although he has not the right to' take part ui Provincial Councils, he may be invited to do so, but has no decisive vote, unless by unanimous consent and permission of the Provincial Fathers. He can wear everj'where the prelatial dress and ring (the sign of his spiritual union with his titular see), and use the pontifical vestments, ornaments, and insignia, when, by permission of the ordinary, he performs pontifical functions. In general eomi- cils and every meeting of bishops where the local prelate is not present, ui Rome, and outside of Rome, the titular auxiliarj', etc., takes precedence of all bishops (except assistant bishops at pontifical throne) of later consecration. In provincial coun- cils, however, aU suffragans outrank all titulars with- out regard to date of consecration. Titular aux- iliaries, as well as diocesans, are obliged to receive episcopal consecration within three montlis from confirmation, unless this is morally impossible; to make profession of faith and take oath of loj-alty and fidelity to the Roman Pontiff, and to go to his titular diocese, if ever it is rehabilitated. By reason of the spiritual union with his see, he cannot be elected, but only postulated, for another diocese. Only the Holy Father can dissolve the spiritual union with the titular see. An auxiliary never has the title of a titular archiepiscopal see: but a perpet- ual coadjutor often has. The titular archbishop- coadjutor is not bound to petition for the pallium or the use of it. Titular auxiliary is not bound (a) to make visit ad limina Apostolorum (some say he is); (b) to residence in his titular see, or in the cathedral city of the diocese in which he holds the office of auxiliary (the place of his residence is regu- lated by the diocesan); (e) to say Mass for the people. The criminal and important causes relating to auxiliary bishops are reserved to the Holy See, those of lesser moment to the Congregation of Bishops and Regulars. By virtue of the office of auxiliary he has a perpetual right to a pension suitable to maintain the episcopal dignitj'. This is to be paid by the diocesan from the diocesan revenues. Tlie amount of pension and source from which it is to be obtained is generally specified m the Apostolic Letters of appointment. He can hold any benefice he had before and acquire a new one after his con- secration, as the office of auxiliary is not a benefice. He enjoys the same honorific privileges (with a few exceptions, viz. throne, cajipa magna, mozzetta, and rochet worn without mantelletta, and crosier), pon- tifical ornaments, and titles, as does the diocesan. He can and must use the prelatial dress, as in the Roman Curia, to wit: rochet over the purple soutane with purple mantelletta, in his attendance in the cathcilral, where he lias precedence over all other canons and dignitaries, as to choir stall and func- tions. When he is celebrant in pontifical functions, the canons must assist, but in the usual canonical dress, except ministers in sacred vestments. Not all the canons are bound to meet him at the church door, as he enters to celebrate pontifical Mass. Dur- ing the ceremony he is assisted by a canon as as- sistant priest, and deacon, and sub-deacon in sacred vestments. He has no right to the usual two canon- assistant deacons, nor to the seventh candlestick, nor to the usual reverences of the canons at Kj'rie. etc., nor the use of the throne or crosier unless bj- speeial permission. He uses the faldistorium. He can use the crosier with the special permission of the diocesan, and when he officiates at ordinations, consecrations, and other pontifical functions, during which the rules of the Pontifical demand its use