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AVE


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AVELLINO


the fortification of Quebec and thie approaches to it by outworks at lie d'Orleans and at L^vis. He also recommended that the colony should be freed of its useless ofBeials, to be replaced by soldiers who could hold the Iroquois in check, and prevent the Dutch from supplj'ing them with arms. He formed a councU, at the head of which he placed the Superior of the Jesuits. The sale of drink to the Indians was forbidden under pain of death, a penalty wliich the governor inflicted on several who had disobeyed his orders. He became embroiled in a quarrel with the bishop and the Jesuits, because they had begged the release of a poor widow whom he had caused to be imprisoned for selling brandy. He dissolved his council, in order to surround himself with more subservient advisei-s, and removed the prohibition imposed on the sale of liquor. Serious disorders ensued; the priests preached against misuse of au- thority, and an earthquake which shook the whole valley of the St. Lawrence was looked upon by the people as a Divine chastisement. Bishop Laval found it necessary to return to France to ask for the governor's recall. D'Avaugour was relieved of his command, and a royal commissioner was charged to make enquiries as to his conduct. The governor left Quebec, 23 July, 1663. On his arrival in France he submitted two statements to the king in regard to the measures to be taken for the colonization and defence of Canada; he advised the concentration of the troops at Quebec and the building of a fort at the head of the Richelieu river, also that the Dutch should be driven out of Fort Orange (Albany), and that the French should take possession of the Hud- son River, in order to gain an exit to the sea. At a later date one of his suggestions was acted on, when veteran soldiers were sent to Canada with permis- sion to settle a.s colonists. D'Avaugour asked to be allowed to resume active service, and was sent to Austria, where Louis XIV was aiding the rising of the Croats. He died a soldier's death while bravely defending the fortress of Zrin against the Turks.

Papiers de Condi, series F.XXV (at the Castle of ChantiUy); New York Colonial Documents. IX, 13-17, anil 20. 21; Fail- LON, Hisl. col. Iranc. au Canada, III, 33-38 sqq.; 66 sqq.

J. Edmond Roy. Ave Maria. Sec H.\il M.^ry.

Ave Maris Stella (Hail, thou Star of Ocean), the first verse of an unrhymed, accentual hymn, of seven strojihes of four lines each, assigned in the Roman Breviary to Vespers in the Common Office, the Office for Saturdays, and the Little Office (as well as for Feasts) of the Blessed Virgin. It has been ascribed wrongly to St. Bernard, but antedates him, being found in a St. Gall manuscript of the ninth century; and, also, without sufficient authority, to St. Venantius Fortunatus (d. 609). Its verj' fre- quent occurrence in the Divine Office made it most popular in the Middle Ages, many other hymns being founded upon it.

MoNE. LateinUche Hymnen, etc., II. 216-229, for five paraphrases with notes; D.\niel. Thesaurus Hymnol., I, 204- 206, for text with variants, and IV. 136, for additional notes; Analecta Hmrnica, I, 49-186; III, 40-11; IV, 49-50; VIII, 75; IX, 72; X, 103; XV, 114; XX, 142 sqq., Nos. 185-188; XXX, 282; XXXII, 33-34. An e-xcellent study of its rhythmic features in connection with the plain-song melody of the first Mode was contributed by DoM Pothier to the Revwe du chant orfgorien (Grenoble, 1895), 83 sqq. (reprinted with additional comment, by GlULlo Bas in his Rhyihme Gregorien. etc. (Rome, 1906), 15-19. There arc seven translations into English, that of Father Caswall appearing in his Lyra Catholica as "Gentle Star of Ocean," and agam in his Hymns and Poems in an altered form, and al.-so in many collections of Catholic hymns, sometimes modified. It is found in the Marquess of Bute's Breviary as "Hail, thou Star of Ocean." The other trans- lations are by Beste, Hewitt, Chambers, and Mrs, Charles. H. T. Henry.

Ave Regina, an antiphon so called from its first line. Ave regina caelorum (Hail, Queen of Heaven).


It is one of the four Antiphons of the Blessed Vir- gin sung in the Divine Office in turn throughout the year, and is assigned thus from Compline of 2 February (even when the Feast of the Purification is transferred) to Holy Thursday exclusively. It comprises two stanz;is of four fines each, followed by its own versicle and response and prayer. Its date of composition is uncertain, but the conjecture of Stella (Inst. Liturg., Rome, 1895) that it antedates the fourth century seems to be without any warrant of external or internal e%'idence. It is found in the St. Alban's Book of the twelfth century; in a Munich MS. thought by Daniel to be of the thirteenth; in a Sarum Breviary of the fourteenth; and in York and Roman Breviaries of the fifteenth. Th. Bernard [Le BrSviaire (Paris, 1887), II, 454 sqq.] says it was introduced into the Divine Office by Clement VI in the fourteenth century. He gives a commentary, and thinks he can perceive in it elements of the "noble accents . . . aspirations of many Doctors, such as St. Athamisius, St. Ephrem, St. Ildephonsus "- Said during Septuagesima, Lent, Passiontide, the time, namely, of prejiaration for Easter, it recalls the part Mary had in the drama of the reopening of Heaven to men, and shows her as reigning there, Queen of Angels. Its opening line was sometimes quoted as the first line of hymns and sequences in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries (cf . Dreves and Blume, Analecta Hymnica, I, 94; X, 103; XXX, 238; XXXII, 43; XLVI, 1.36) which, however, had no other relation with the Antiphon, being some- times meditations on the Ave Maria, sometimes dis- tinct poetical compositions, for example:

Ave regina ccelorum,

Pia virgo tenella, Maria (virgo), flos florum

Christi (([ue) clausa cella. Gratia, qute peccatorum

Dira tiilisti bella,

and so on, throughout the whole of the Angelical Salutation down to ventris txd, where the poem ends (MS. of fourteenth century) (loc. cit., XLVI, 136). Or, as a distinct hjniin:

Ave, regina coelorum, Ave, decus angelorum, Ave, gaudium sanctorum, Ave, solis regia,

in a MS. of the fifteenth century (loc. cit., XL, 98). The Arc Regina has been translated by Caswall. "Lyra Cathohca" (London, 1849, 1873, 1884; New York, 1851), whose version is used in the "Manual of Prayers" (Baltimore), 77: "Hail, O' Queen of Heaven enthroned"; also by Beste, "Church Hymns" (1849) : " Hail, thou mighty Queen of Heaven ". The version in the Marquess of Bute's "Breviary" (Edinburgh, 1879, I, 177) begins: "Hail, O Mar;', Queen of Heaven ". Schlosser [Die Kirche in ihren Liedern (Freiburg, 1863), I, 251] gives a transla- tion into German in the same metre. The plain- song melody in the 6th tone lias also a simpler setting ["Manuale Missa; et Officiorum" (Rome and Toumai, 1903), 100, 103].

H. T. Henry.

Avellana CoUectio, See C.\nons, Collections OF Ancient.

Avellino, Diocese of. — An Italian diocese in the Province of Naples, suffragan to Benevento. Avellino was founded by St. Sabinus. martyr, in the beginning of the second century. The list of bish- ops dates from 1124. The Diocese of Frigento, whose list is from 1080 to 1455, was united with that of Avellino from 9 May, 1466, until 27 June, 1818, when it was suppressed. Avellino was vacant from 1782 to 1792. It has 118,649 Catholics; 41 parishes, 243