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sions, insisted on his loyalty to Bishop Flaget, and helped constantly and generously to secure gifts in money and valuable church-furniture for the mis- sionaries. In 1822 he published in Paris a "State- ment of the Missions in Kentucky", with the same purpose in view.

Father Badin returned to America in 1828. After a year on the Michigan mission, he went back to Kentucky in 1829. The next year he offered his services to Bishop Fenwick of Cincinnati, and took charge of the Pottawottomie Indians at St. Joseph's River. Miss Campau of Detroit, an expert Indian linguist, acted as interpreter and teacher, until Father Badin left the place in 1836. Having re- turned to Cincinnati in that year, he wrote for the "Catholic Telegraph" a series of controversial "Letters to an Episcopahan Friend". In 1837 he went to Bardstown, Ky., was appointed vicar- general, and continued to visit the various missions. In 1841 he removed to Louisville with the bishop's household. In that year he conveyed a great deal of church property (notably that of Portland, near Louisville) to the bishop, and a farm to the Very Rev. E. Sorin of Notre Dame, Indiana.

On the 25th of May, 1843, Father Badin celebrated the golden jubilee of his priesthood, at Lexington, where he had offered up the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass for the first time in Kentucky. In September, 1846, he accepted from Bishop Quarter of Chicago the pastorship of the French settlement at Bour- bonnais Grove, Kankakee County, Illinois. In the winter of 1848 he was again in Kentucky, and Bishop-Coadjutor Spalding welcomed him to the episcopal household. About two years later he be- came the guest of Archbishop Purcell at Cincinnati, and eventually died at the archbishop's residence. His body lay undisturbed in the cathedral crypt for over fifty years. In 1904 Archbishop Elder per- mitted its removal to the University of Notre Dame, Indiana.

Father Badin's writings are: "Etat des missions du Kentucky" (Paris, 1822), tr. in the "U. S. Cath. Miscellany" for December, 1824, and in the "Catholic World", September, 1875; "Carmen Sacrum", a Latin poem composed on the arrival of Bishop Flaget in Kentucky, June, 1811, translated into English by Colonel Theodore O'Hara of Frankfort, Ky., author of the "Bivouac of the Dead"; "Epice- dium", Latin poem composed on the occasion of the death of Col. Joe Davis at the Battle of Tippecanoe, 7 November, 1811, translated by Doctor Michell of New York (Louisville, 1844); " Sanctissimae Trinitatis Laudes et Invocatio" (Louisville, 1843), also the original text and tr. in Webb's "The Centenary of Catholicity in Kentucky" (Louisville, 1844); "Letters to an Episcopalian Friend" — three controversial arti- cles on the Church and the Eucharist (published in the "Cathohc Telegraph" of Cincinnati, 1836).

Spalding, Sketches of the Early Catholic Missions of Kentucky (Louisville, 1844); Idem, Life of Bishop Flaget {Louisville, 1852); Life of Rev. Chas. Nerinckx (Cincinnati, 1880); Webb, Centenary of Catholicity in Kentucky (Louisville, 1884).

Camillus p. M.\es.

Badius Ascensius. See Printing, Art of.

Badius, Raphael, a Florentine Dominican of the seventeenth century. He was deeply versed in Tuscan and Florentine antiquities, and his researches made him particularly conversant with quaint and curious matters of history and hagiography. He rendered valuable assistance to the Jesuit Fathers, Henschen and Papebroch, in their labours on the "Acta Sanctorum", as they themselves acknowledge (T. II, Junii, ad diem X, de Joanne Dominici, p. 395, n. 6). As Chronicler of the Convent of Santa Maria Novella, Florence, he was also known to the historian and bibliographer Cinellus, who makes frequent and grateful mention of the learned Dominican's helpful

knowledge of the literature and ^Titers of Florence (Bib. Volante, Scanzia VI, 88; IV, 87; XII, 106). In 1681, he was Dean of the University of Florence. QuETlF-EcHABD, Scriptores Ord. Prad. (Paris, 1721), II, 741.

John R. Volz. Baegert, John Jacob, missionary and etlmogra- pher, b. at Schlettstadt in Alsace, 23 December, 1717; d. at Neustadt-on-the-Haardt in the Rhenish Palat- inate, 29 September (or December), 1777. Baegert belonged to an Alsatian family from which had come several members of religious orders. He studied philosophy two years, entered the Society of Jesus at Aschaffenburg, 27 September, 1736, taught the humanities at Mannheim in 1740, studied theology at Molsheim, and after ordination, 14 February, 1749, went to America as a missionary. Lower California was given to him as his field of labour. Here he founded the mission of San Ignacio and worked for seventeen years until the expulsion of the Society in 1767. He embarked at Loretto on the return journey, 3 February, 1768, and after a short stay in a Spanish monastery of the Minorites retired to the Jesuit college at Neustadt-on-the-Haardt, where he ended his days. In 1773 Baegert published anony- mously at Mannheim " Nachriehten von der ameri- kanischen Halbinsel Californien . . . mit einem zweifachen Anhang falscher Nachriehten". The pub- lication is distinguished by truthfulness of statement and corrects the over-favourable description of conditions in California which had been given by Father Venegas in his account issued at Madrid in 1751. Father Baegert describes the physical charac- ter of Lower California, the customs and language of the natives and narrates the history of the mission. Owing to the numerous ethnographical observations the work was of value up to the middle of the nine- teenth century and an edited translation was issued by the Smithsonian Institution in 1863-64; Vivien de Saint-Martin also wrote a detailed account of the work. The contemporaries of Baegert spoke highly of his talent for poetry and of his fine personal qualities.

Reports of the Smithsonian Institution (Washington, 1863), 352 sqq.; (1864), 378 sqq.; (1865), 41 sqq.; de Saint-Mabtin, VAnncegeographiqite, V. 1866 (Paris, 1867), 233-39; Backeb- SoMMEBVoGEL, Bibliothegue (1890), I, 760 sqq., and (1898), VIII, 1724; HuoNDEB, Deutsche JesuitenmissionHre des XVII. und X VIII. Jahrhunderts in Stimmen aus Maria-Loach, sup. tovol. LXXIV (Freiburg im Br., 1899), 106; Geny ed., Hi»- toria, 1631-1765 in Die Jahrbiicher der Jcsuiten zu Schlett- stadt und Rufach, 1815-1765 (Strasburg, 1896), II, 699 sqq. (contains the most reliable personal data).

Otto Hartig.

Baert, FnANfois, Bollandist, b. at Ypres, 25 Au- gust, 1651; d. at Antwerp, 27 October, 1719. He entered the Society of Jesus at Mechlin, 28 September, 1667. After passing through the novitiate he was re- gent of several colleges in the province of Belgian Flanders, studied theology and philosophy, and was finally ordained priest in 1680. The following year, 1681, he was made assistant to Father Daniel Pape- broch, the last survivor of the first generation of BoUandists. The name of Baertius is on the title- pages of nine volumes of the Acta Sanctorum; the last four of May and of the first five of June; but to judge from the articles published in these volumes his col- laboration is by no means so large as these figures would indicate. There are no articles bearing his sig- nature either in the volumes for May nor in the fifth volume for June. The other four volumes for June contain some fifteen articles by him, all very short excepting the commentaries on St. Columba and St. Basil the Great, of the date of 9 June. In 1688, in company with Father Conrad Janninck, he made a trip to Austria and Hungary in search of literary material; the journey lasted eight months and the two returned with a large number of documents.

CuPEB, Elogium R. P. Francisci Baertii hagicgraphi in Acta. SS.. July, II.

Ch. De Smedt.