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academy; 3 free schools with an attendance of 470 pupils. Total Catholic population 360.

Turks and Caicos Islands, situated to the north of Haiti, belonging geographically to the Bahama group, were separated from the other Bahamas in 1848, and made a political dependency of Jamaica. There is no Catholic population. Grand Turk, whose one industry is salt-raking, is the seat of the com- missioner. It is occasionally visited by priests from Jamaica.

Colonial Office List: Memoirs of Peter H. Bruce (London. 1782); Catesby, Natural History of Carolina, Florida, and the Bahamas (London. 1770); McKinnon, Tour in the West Indies (London. 1804); Ives, The Isles of Summer (New Haven, Conn., 1880); PowLES, The Land of the Pink Pearl (London. 188S); Stark. History and Guide to the Bahamas (Boston, 1891); NORTHCROFT. Sketches of Summerland (Nassau, 1906). The last named is the most complete and reliable; Lester, In Sinin\i Isles (1897).

Chrysostom Schreiner.

Bahia de Todos os Santos. See San Salvador jiE B.\niA.

Bahrein Islands. See Persia.

Baianism. See Baius, Michel.

Bailey, Thomas, controversialist, died c. 1657. He was son of Bishop Bailey of Bangor and was educated as an Anglican at Magdalen College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A., in 1627, and M.A., in 1631. After ordination he was ap- pointed Sub-Dean of Wells (1638). During the civil wars he retired to Oxford where he proceeded Doctor of Divinity. He was a stanch royalist and after the battle of Naseby was for a time in the king's retinue at Raglan Castle. Subsequently through the help of the Marquess of Worcester, who was a Catholic, he travelled abroad and thus became acquainted with Catholic life, which led to his conversion. On his return he published a work of strong royalist tendencies to prove the divine right of Episcopacy; this book gave offence to Cromwell's government and resulted in his arrest and imprisonment in Newgate. While a prisoner he wrote another book called "Herba parietis" (The Wall-flower), in allusion to his captive state. After his release he retired to Italy, where he ob- tained employment in the household of Cardinal Ottoboni at Ferrara. He died shortly before the Restoration, probably in the cardinal's employ, although Anthony k Wood repeats a rumour that he died at Bologna as a common soldier. Among the works published in his name is a life of Blessed John Fisher, which has given rise to some difTiculty, for it was written by Dr. Richard Hall in 15.')9, nearly a century before. Bailey published it with additions which the martjo-'s latest biographer, Rev. T. Bridgett, describes as "nothing but verbiage and blunders". He adds that some of the additions "are palpably false and have brought discredit upon Hall". It was suggested by Dodd that Bailey's name was added without his knowledge by the bookseller, but if the preface signed T. B. be genuine he certainly claimed authorship, a fact which does not enhance his reputation. His au- thentic works are: "Certamen Religiosum" (Lon- don, 1649), an account of the conference concerning religion between Charles I and the Marquess of Worcester; answered by L'Estrange, CartwTight, and Heylyn; "The Royal Charter granted unto Kings by God Himself" (London, 1649, 1656, 1680); "Herba parietis" (London, 1650); "The End to Controversie" (Douai, 1654); "Golden Apothegms of Charles I and Henry, Marquess of Worcester" (London, 1660). Bailey also completed and pub- lished Bishop Lindsell's edition of Theophylact. The book mentioned in Walton's "Life of Bishop .Sandor.son" as "Dr. Bailey's Challenge" may be a separate work but more probably is merely a reference to one of the above.

Coopeh in Diet. Nat. Biog., Ill, s. v. Bayly; Gillow. Bibl, Did. Eng. Cath.; Dodd, Church History (1737-42), III, 64; Wood, Athen. Oxon., ed. Bliss, II, 526; Bridgett, Life of Fisher (1890), preface.

Edwin Burton.

Baillargeon, Charles-Fran(;ois, a French-Ca- nadian bishop, b. 26 April, 1798, at Ile-au.x-Grues, P. Q.; d. 13 October, 1870. He studied theology at the Seminary of Quebec, where he taught rhetoric. Ordained in 1822, he was successively chaplain at St. Roch, pastor of St, Francois, Isle of Orleans, of the joint parishes of L'Ange-Gardien and Chat- eau-Richer. While rector of Notre Dame de Quebec, he displayed apostolic zeal and charity during three visitations of cholera (1832, 1834, 1849), and the horrors of typhus (1847), assisting many Irish orphans. He was made Bishop of Tloa and coadjutor to Archbishop Turgeon of Quebec. 23 February, 1851, being the first Canadian bishop since the conquest appointed without the inter- vention of the British Crown. He became ad- ministrator in 1855 and succeeded as Archbishop of Quebec, 26 August, 1867. He attended the Vatican Council. He published a French transla- tion, with commentary, of the New Testament (2d ed., 1865), lauded by Pius IX, "Recueil d'Or- donnances" (1859), and over thirty important Pastoral Letters, besides many other official docu- ments.

Paquet, Mgr. Baillargeon (Quebec, 1870); Legare. Elage de Mgr. C.-F. Baillargeon (ibid., 1871); TETn, Lea Eveques de Quebec (ibid., 1889).

Lionel Lindsay.

Baillet, A drien, French author, b. 1649atNeuville en Hez, near Beauvais, France; d. at Paris, 1706. His parents were poor, but the Cordeliers of La Garde, struck by the boy's piety and alertness of mind, took him into their monastery and then had him admittetl to the College of Beauvais, where, at the close of his studies, he became teacher of humanities. Ordained

Eriest in 1676, he served for a time as curate of ardieu and was then made canon of Beaumont, but neither pastoral nor canonical functions satisfied him. .A.t the end of four years his love of learning took him to Paris, where he secured the place of hbrarian to the celebrated de Lamoignon. An in- satiable reader and a rigid ascetic, he spent his hfe in the seclusion of study and austerity. In a com- paratively short time he had made an analytical catalogue, in thirty-two folios, of Lamoignon's library. The great mass of erudition thus acquired soon passed into innumerable books. His writings may be di'v-ided into three groups: (1) Erudition. (2) History, (3) Religion. To the first group belong: " Jugements des savants sur les principaux ouvrages des auteurs" (1685); "Des auteurs d^guises" (1690); "Des enfants celobres" (1688). With the exception of the last, which still attracts by its curiousness, these books are now almost forgotten, both because they are incomplete and because they have been more than replaced by the works of such writers as Brunet, Qu^rard, Barbier, etc. Baillet's criticisms were not accepted by all. Manage, who thought himself ill-treated, wrote the " .Anti-Baillet " to which Baillet replied by " Des satires personnelles " (1682). La Monnoie published a revised edition of all the foregoing books, to which he joined by way of introduction an ".'^br^-g^ de la \'ie de M. Baillet" (Paris, 1722; Amsterdam, 1725).

To the second group belong: "Histoire de Hol- lande" (1690); "Vie de Descartes" (1692); "Vie de Godefroy Hermant"; "Vie de Richer" (1693); " Histoire des d^mel^s du Pape Boniface VIII avec PhiHppe le Bel" (1718), etc. The author shows too much sympathy for the Jansenist Hermant .and the Galilean Richer. His life of Descartes is replete witli interesting but rather garbled information. Lelong