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BARNABAS


301


BARNABAS


to the Gentile world and to designate for the work Barnabas and Paul. They accordingly departed, after the imposition of hands, with John Mark as helper. Cyprus, the native land of Barnabas, was first evangelized, and then they crossed over to Asia Minor. Here, at Perge in Parnphylia, the first stop- ping place, John Mark left them, for what reason his friend St. Luke does not state, though Paul looked on the act as desertion. The two Apostles, however, pushing into the interior of a rather wild country, preached at Antioch of Pisidia, Iconium, Lystra, at Derbe, and other cities. At everj' step they met ■nith opposition and even violent persecution from the Jews, who also incited the Gentiles against them. The most striking incident of the journey was at Lystra, where the superstitious populace took Paul, who had just cured a lame man, for Hermes (Mer- cury) "because he was the chief speaker", and Barnabas for Jupiter, and were about to sacrifice a bull to them when prevented by the Apostles. Mob- like, they were soon persuaded" by the Jews to turn and attack the Apostles and wounded St. Paul almost fatally. Despite opposition and persecution, Paul and Barnabas made many converts on this journey and returned by the same route to Perge, organizing churches, ordaining presbyters and placing them over the faithful, so that they felt, on again reaching Antioch in Syria, that God had "opened a door of faith to the Gentiles" (Acts, xiii, 13 — xiv, 27; see article P.^dl, S.uxt).

Barnabas and Paul had been for "no small time" at Antioch, when they were threatened Tvith the undoing of their work and the stopping of its further progress. Preachers came from Jerusalem with the gospel that circumcision was necessary for salvation, even for the Gentiles. The Apostles of the Gentiles, perceiving at once that this doctrine would be fatal to their work, went up to Jerusalem to combat it; the older Apostles received them kindly and at what is called the Council of Jerusalem (dated variously from A. D. 47 to 51) granted a decision in their favour as well as a hearty commendation of their work (Acts, xiv, 27 — XV, 30; see articles Jerus.\lem, Council of; Peter, S.unt). On their return to Antioch, they resumed their preaching for a short time. St. Peter came down and associated freely there ■nith the Gentiles, eating with them. This dis- pleased some disciples of James; in their opinion, Peter's act was unlawful, as against the Mosaic law. Upon their remonstrances, Peter yielded, apparently through fear of displeasing them, and refused to eat any longer with the Gentiles. Barnabas followed his example. Paul considered that they "walked not uprightly according to the truth of the gospel" and upbraided them before the whole church (Gal., ii, 11-15). Paul seems to have carried his point. Shortly afterwards, he and Barnabas decided to revisit their missions. Barnabas wished to take John Mark along once more, but on account of the previous defection Paul objected. A sharp contention ensuing, the Apostles agreed to separate. Paul was probably somewhat influenced by the attitude recently taken by Barnabas, which might prove a prejudice to their work. Barnabas sailed with John Mark to Cyprus, while Paul took Silas and revisited the churches of Asia Minor. It is believed by some that the church of Antioch, by its God-.speed to Paul, showed its approval of his attitude; this inference, however, is not certain (Acts, xv, 35-41).

Little is known of the subsequent career of Barna- bas. He was still living and labouring as an Apostle in 56 or 57, when Paul -nTOte I Cor. (ix, 5, 6), from which we learn that he, too, like Paul, earned his own living, though on an equality -n-ith the other Apostles. The reference indicates also that the friendship between the two was unimpaired. When Paul was a prisoner in Rome (61-63), John Mark


was attached to him as a disciple, which is regarded as an indication that Barnabas was no longer living (Col., iv, 10). This seems probable. Various tradi- tions represent him as the first Bishop of Milan, as preaching at Alexandria and at Rome, whose fourth (?) bishop, St. Clement, he is said to have converted, and as having suffered martyrdom in Cj-prus. The traditions are all late and untrustworthy. With the exception of St. Paul and certain of the Twelve, Barnabas appears to have been the most esteemed man of the first Christian generation. St. Luke, breaking his habit of reserve, speaks of him with affection, "for he was a good man, full of the Holy Ghost and of Faith". His title to glorj' comes not only from his kindliness of heart, his personal sanc- tity, and his missionary labours, but also from his readiness to lay aside his Jewish prejudices, in this anticipating certain of the Twelve; from his large- hearted welcome of the Gentiles, and from his early perception of Paul's worth, to which the Christian Church is indebted, in large part at least, for its great Apostle. His tenderness towards John Mark seems to have had its reward in the valuable services later rendered by him to the Church. The feast of St. Barnabas is celebrated on 11 June. He is credited by Tertullian (probably falselj") with the authorslup of the Epistle to the Hebrews, and the so-called Epistle of Barnabas (see B.iKN.\B.\s, Epistle Attributed to) is ascribed to him by many Fathers.

Ramsay, St. Paul, the Traveller and the Roman Citizen (Lon- don, 1893): ScHMlEDEL in Encyc. Bib. (New York, 1899); FoUARD. SI. Peter (New York, 1S93): Idem. St. Paul and Hia Mifsions (New York, 1894); Cave. Lives of the Most Eminent Fathers of the Church (Oxford, 1840); Convbeare and How- 80N. Life and Epistles of St. Paul (New York, 1869); Le Camcs in ViG., Diet, de la Bib. (Paris, 1893).

John F. Fenlon.

Barnabas of Temi (Interamna), Friar Minor and missionary, d. 1474 (or 1477). He belonged to the noble family of the Manassei and was a man of great learning, being Doctor of Medicine and well versed in letters and philosophy. Despising the honours and vanities of the world, he entered the Order of Friars Minor in the Umbria province of the order and prac- tised, with unusual fervour, everj' virtue of the re- ligious life. After devoting himself assiduously to the stud}- of theologj', Barnabas began to preach with wonderful success, but a severe illness obliged him to abandon this work. Although gifted with the grace of prayer and contemplation in an eminent degree, he was almost continually employed in different offices of importance, for which his prudence, kindness, and affability well fitted him. By word and example he proved himself a zealous promoter of that branch of the order known as the Observance. He died at the hermitage of the Carceri on Mount Subiaco at an advanced age and his remains were deposited there in the Chapel of St. Marj- Magdelene. He is com- memorated in the Franciscan martjTology on 17 Februarj'. To Barnabas belongs the honour of hav- ing established the first of the celebrated monti di pieta, or charitable loan-institutions, designed to pro- tect poor people against the outrageous usurj- of the Jews. After consulting his fellow religious P'ortuna- tus Coppoli, who had been an eminent jurisconsult, and with the generous co-operation of the wealthy Perugians, Barnabas established the first monte di m'eta in their city in 1462. Violent opposition ensued, tut Barnabas and Fortunatus prevailed over their enemies at a public disputation. Barnabas next extended his work to other cities; it was enthusiasti- cally taken up by several great Franciscan mission- aries, and, in their day, the monti di pieta wonder- fully improved the social conditions of Italy. (See Bern.\rdixe of Feltre.)

Wadding, AnTtalet Minorum (2d ed.), XIV, 93. XV. 318; Holzapfel, Die Anfanger der Montes Pietatis (Munich, 1903), 35 passim.

Thomas Plassmann