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Barruel, ArcrsTiN, controversialist and pub- licist, b. at Villeneuve de Berg (Ardeche), 2 October, 1741; d. at Paris, 5 October, 1820. He entered the Society of Jesus in 1756 and taught grammar at Toulouse in 1762. The storm against the Jesuits in France drove him from his coimtry and he was occupied in college work in Moravia and Bohemia until the suppression of the order in 1773. He then returned to France and his first literary work ap-

E?ared in 1774: "Ode sur le glorietLx avenement de ouis Auguste au trone". That same year he be- came a collaborator of the "Ann^e litt^raire", edited by Fr^ron. His first important work was "Les Helviennes, ou Lettres Provinciales philosophi- ques" (.\msterdam, 17S1). The seventh edition of the work (Paris, 1S39) contains a sketch of the author. Of these letters, the seventy-sixth is con- sidered the most brilliant. His book provoked a controversy with M. Giraud-Soulavie, and the re- plies and coimter-replies were mary.

In the meantime, national affairs in France were growing more and more turbulent, but Barruel con- tinued his literary acti^-ity, which from now on oc- cupied itself specially with public questions. In 1789 appeared "Lettres sur le Divorce", a refutation of a book by Hennet. From 1788 to 1792 he edited the famous "Journal Eccl^siastique" founded by Dinouart in 1760. In this periodical was published Barruel's " La Conduite du S. Siege envers la France", a vigorous defence of Pope Pius VI. He likewise WTOte a nvnnber of pamplilets against the civil oath demanded from ecclesiastics and against the new civil constitution during 1790 and 1791. He after- wards gathered into one "Collection Eccl^siastique" all the works relative to the clergj- and civil constitu- tion. The ninth volume of this collection was pub- lished in 1793.

The storm of the French Revolution had in the meantime (1792) forced Barruel to seek refuge in England, where he became almoner to the refugee Prince de Conti. Here he wrote in 1793 his well- known " Histoire du Clergj pendant la Revolution Fran^aise". He dedicated the work to the English nation in recognition of the hospitality if had shown towards the unfortunate French ecclesiastics. It has been translated into German, Italian, Spanish, Polish, and English. The English version went through several editions and did much to strengthen the British nation in its opposition to French revo- lutionary principles. An American edition of the work appeared at Burlington in 1824. While in London, Barruel published an English work: "A Dissertation on Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction in the Catholic Church" (1794). But none of his works attracted so much attention as his "M^nioires pour servir a I'histoire du Jacobinisme" (London, 1797-98). It appeared in an English dress: "Memoirs of the History of Jacobinism and Freemasonrj' of Barruel, translated into English by the Hon. Robert Clifford" (London, 1798) in fotu- volumes. This important work is an endeavour to accoimt for the French Revo- lution by a study of the anti-Christian and anti- social principles of the secret societiee and ency- clopedic philosophers. Owing to its translation into every modern language it was everjT\here read and commented upon. A sharp criticism in the "Monthly Re^^ew", brought forth a reply from Barruel, who greatly increased the circulation of his book by issuing an abridgment of it in 1798. The Freemasons of France, Germany, and England angrily contested his assertions and a voluminous literature was the consequence. While some are of the opinion that Barruel's work attributes to the secret societies many evil deeds for which they are not responsible, all ad- mit that his exposition of their principles and the logical consequences flo'n'ing from them is the ■(\ork of a powerful mind. Barruel, indeed, seems to have

been the first to portray clearly the necessary con- sequences to civil governments, to the Church, and to social order that must result from the atheistic oathbound associations which had acquired such tremendous power on the continent of Europe.

On the fall of the Directory in 1S02, Barruel was enabled to return to France. He fully accepted and persuaded many other clergjTnen to accept the new political order of things in his native countrj^ and he wrote several books to defend his opinions. When the Concordat was made in 1801 between Pius VH and Napoleon, Barruel wrote: "Du Pape et de ses Droits Religieux". Llis last important controversy was a defence of the Holy See in its deposition of the French bishops, which had been necessitated by the new order of tilings in France, established by the Concordat. His book appeared also in Eng- lish: "The Papal Power, or an historical essay on the temporal power of the Pope" (London, 1803). Many attacked the work, but as usual the author did not suffer an antagonist to go unanswered. His new book involved him in a verj' extended controversy, for his work was translated into all the principal European languages. His friends and foes alike became involved in a wordy war. Blanchard pub- lished in London no less than three refutations. Two works are erroneously attributed to Barruel: "L'Histoire civile, politique et religieuse de Pie VI" and "D^couverte importante sur le systems de la Constitution du Clergj, d^cret^ par TAssembl^e nationale". The many articles Barruel contributed to journals and his many published letters are net touched on here. He had promised to compose two works which never appeared, viz: "Histoire des Soci^tfe Secretes au Moyen-Age" and "Dissertation sur la Croisade contre les Albigeois". In regard to the latter work, Barruel stated that his object would he to defend the Church against the reproach of having deposed kings and having freed their sub- jects from the oath of allegiance. He contended that objections on this score arose only from an ig- norance of historj'. During the whole course of a life of multiplied activity, Barruel was ever the wakeful apologist and unwearied defender of Chris- tian truth and of the rights of the Church. At the time of his death, he was engaged on a refutation of the philosophical system of Kant, but never com- pleted his work.

SoMMERVoGEi., BM. de 111 c. rfc J. (Brussel.s, 18901; Dus- BAULT, Notice sur la vie de Barruel (Paris. 1825); HuRTER, Nomen. Lit., Ill (Innsbruck, ISOSI; De Backer, Bibl. de» ecriiains. S. J. (Lif^ge. 1S63); Querard, La France litteraire (Paris, 1827), I, 190. 97.

William H. W. Fanning. Barry. See Giraldis Caiibrensts.

Barry, John, captain in the United States na^-j', b. atTacumshane, County AVexford, Ireland, in 1745; d. at Philadelphia, 13 September, 1803. At an early age Barry was sent to sea. He arrived at Philadelphia when he was fifteen years old, and made that city his home to the time of his death. He was employed in the West Indian trade and commanded se\eral vessels until December, 1774, when he sailed from Philadelphia, as captain of a fine large ship "The Black Prince", botmd for Bristol, England, returning to Philadelphia 13 October, 1775, the day the Conti- nental Congress, then in session there, authorized the purchase of two armed vessels for the beginning of the Continental Na\y. Barry immediately vohmteered his services, and he was assigned to the command of the first vessel purchased the "Lexington". His commission was dated 7 December, 1775, the first issued by the Marine Committee of the Continental Congress. On 22 December, 1775, Esek Hopkins was appointed Commander-in-chief of the Na\'j- — but was dropped from its roll in March, 1777. Barry was in command of the "Lexington" from his appoint-